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Yield, efficiency indices and economics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties as influenced by variable row spacings

S.R. Ghafari, M.Q. Mangal, M.N. Jalali, Javid Ali and Anchal Dass



A study was conducted during 2015 winter at Tarnak Research Farm of Afghanistan National Agriculture Science and Technology University, Kandahar to find out effect of row spacing on different varieties of wheat cultivation. The treatments comprised of three wheat varieties (PBW 154, Darulaman 07 and Herat 99) and three row spacing (20, 25 and 30 cm). The experiment was laid out in a randomised block design with three replications. Result indicated that among three wheat varieties, Herat 99 produced significantly higher grain yield (3.71 t ha-1), straw yield (6.17 t ha-1), production use efficiency (28.8 kg ha-1 per day) and irrigation water-use efficiency (10.6 kg ha-1 mm-1) than Darulaman 07. But, harvest index was not influenced by varieties significantly. Biological yield (9.88 t ha-1), output energy (131,709 MJ ha-1) and energy use efficiency (7.5) of Herat 99 were significantly greater than other varieties. Herat 99 variety produced significantly higher gross returns (173,078 Afn. ha-1) and net returns (119,681 Afn. ha-1) than other varieties. The B:C ratio (2.2) was in Herat 99 variety significantly higher than Darulaman 07. Planting at 20 cm row spacing resulted in significantly higher grain yield (3.71 t ha-1), straw yield (6.17 t ha-1), biological yield (9.71 t ha-1), production efficiency (28.8 kg ha-1 day-1), irrigation water-use efficiency (10.6 kg ha-1mm-1), output energy (129,803 MJ ha-1), energy use efficiency (7.4), net return (117,731 Afn. ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.2) as compared to 30 cm row spacing. The gross return (171,378 Afn. ha-1) were significantly higher with 20 cm row spacing than other row spacing.

Key words: Economics, efficiency indices, row spacing, wheat varieties, yield


Influence of nitrogen and plant spacing on growth and yield characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

Habibullah Hamayoun and S.N. Saravaiya


The study was conducted in the field of Ghazni University Agriculture faculty farm, Ghazni, Afghanistan during the period from November, 2017 to January, 2018. The experiment consisted of two factors, factor A: Nitrogen (4 levels) N0: 0 (control); N1: 50; N2: 100 and N3: 150 kg ha-1 respectively; and factor B: plant spacing (3 levels), S1: 40 cm × 20 cm, S2: 40 cm × 25 cm; S3: 40 cm × 30 cm. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. In case of nitrogen, the highest yield (29.99 t ha-1) was recorded from N3 and lowest (18.65 t ha-1) from N0. In case of spacing the highest yield (25.83 t ha-1) was achieved from S2 and lowest (23.0 t ha-1) from S1. For interaction effect, the highest yield (31.31 t ha-1) was obtained from N3S2 and lowest (16.79 t ha-1) from N0S1.

Key words: Growth, lettuce, nitrogen, spacing, yield


Assessment of critical limit of sulphur for rice, groundnut and potato in red and laterite soils of Odisha

D.R. Sarangi, D. Jena and A.K. Chatterjee  


Pot culture studies were conducted taking ten different soils collected from red and laterite soil region of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha with groundnut, rice and potato as test crops to evaluate the critical limit of S in soil and plants. The soils were acidic in reaction (pH 4.72-5.84), low to medium in organic carbon content and texture varied from loamy sand to silt loamy. The CEC ranged from 3.7-6.0 c mol (p+) kg-1. About 50% soils were deficient in S. Rice, groundnut and potato received recommended dose of NPK. Each crop received seven levels of S varying from 10 to 60 kg ha-1. The critical level of S in soils and plants as determined by simple graphical method in red and laterite soils was 10 mg kg-1. The critical concentration of S in rice, groundnut and potato leaves was 0.21, 0.34 and 0.8 %, respectively. Maximum biomass yield was recorded in groundnut at 30 kg S ha-1 and rice and potato at 40 kg S ha-1 level indicating knowledge of critical concentration helps in maximizing the yield and performance of crop.

Key words: Critical limit, groundnut, red and laterite soils, rice, potato, sulphur


Cropping system and irrigation effects on nutrient use efficiency and quality of elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson]

S.K. Jata, M. Nedunchezhiyan, S.K. Maity and M. Mallikarjun


Afield experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 at the Regional Centre of ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Dumuduma, Bhubaneswar, Odisha to study the effects of cropping system and irrigation on nutrient use efficiency and quality of elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson]. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with elephant foot yam + green gram (Vigna radiata L.) and elephant foot yam sole crop in main plots and surface irrigation, drip irrigation at 100% cumulative pan evaporation (CPE), drip irrigation at 80% CPE and drip irrigation at 60% CPE in sub-plots. The treatments were replicated five times. Elephant foot yam + green gram resulted in greater corm yield compared to other treatments. The drip irrigation at 100, 80 and 60% CPE resulted in 16.7 and 14.9%, 16.4 and 14.6%, 12.3 and 11.5% higher yield over surface irrigation during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The greater nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake as well as nutrient use efficiency were noticed in elephant foot yam + green gram intercropping with drip irrigation at 100% CPE followed by at 80% CPE. The elephant foot yam + green gram resulted in greater protein and sugar content in corms than sole cropping. But, starch and oxalate content was higher in sole elephant foot yam corms. The minerals, i.e. P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn content in the corms of sole elephant foot yam crop and surface irrigation were higher than other treatments. However, optimum elephant foot yam corm yield and nutrient use efficiency with mineral nutrition can be obtained under elephant foot yam + green gram intercropping with the application of drip irrigation at 80% CPE.

Key words: Corm yield, drip irrigation, elephant foot yam, nutrient uptake


Interaction effect of age of seedling, nutrient and weed management on yield and yield attributes of rice under SRI

K.C. Sahoo, B.S. Rath, K. Pramanik and M. Ray


The field experiment on interaction effect of age of seedling, nutrient and weed management on yield and yield atributing characters of rice under SRI was conducted at the instructional farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shyamakhunta, Mayurbhanj, Odisha during the kharif season of 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid out in split plot design keeping nutrient and weed management practices in main plot and age of seedlings in sub-plot. The treatments comprised of three nutrient management practices viz., full inorganic (RD:80:40:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1), half RD +10 t FYM ha-1 and full organic (20 t FYM ha-1), two weed management practices viz., cono weeder and mandua weeder and four age of seedlings viz. 8, 12, 16 and 20 days. Nutrient supplement through 50% inorganic + 50% organic with weeds were controlled by cono weeder coupled with 12 days old seedlings recorded the highest grain yield i.e. 7120 and 7195 kg ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively.

  Key words: Age of seedling, nutrient management, weed management, SRI


The distribution of the ratio of two correlated measured variables may not always be normal: Case studies related to meat quality and animal nutrition

M.S. Dhanoa, R. Sanderson, S. Shanmugalingam, S. Lopez, J.M.D. Murray and J. France


Ratios of measured normal variables associated with each other are commonly used in the animal sciences as an indicator of quality or some other meaningful outcome. For this purpose,the study of relative performance among two correlated outcomes is facilitated by the ratio of one to the other, e.g. omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio indicating meat quality for human health, closer to 1:1 the better. Similarly, feed constituent indigestibility (complement of digestibility) is the ratio of faecal output to intake. In practice, the tendency is to assume that such ratios are normally distributed; however, that may not always be the case. The statistical distribution of these ratios is a five parameter distribution, i.e. μ and σ for the variable in the numerator of the ratio, μ and σ for the variable in the denominator and the correlation between both variables. The relative sizes of the coefficients of variation of the numerator and denominatorfor a given correlation will determine if the distribution is normal or not. In this communication, we demonstrate this phenomenon by analysing some meaningful ratios (viz. omega-6:omega-3, volatile fatty acid relative proportions and indigestibility) and outline some simple tests for samples and ratio normality evaluation.

Key words: Coefficient of variation, correlation, meat quality, omega-6, omega-3, ratio distribution, volatile fatty acids, digestibility


Genetic studies on reproduction performance of Ghumusari goat in its native tract

Subhashree Panigrahi and S.K. Dash


Present study was conducted in Kandhamal and Boudh district of Odisha to assess the heritability of reproduction parameters and genetic association among those traits in its native tract of Ghumusari goat. The average age at sexual maturity, weight at sexual maturity, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding and kidding interval were 215.15±0.88 days, 11.61±0.03 kg, 384.64±0.98 days, 16.60±0.04 kg and 246.29±1.22 days, respectively. Corresponding heritability estimates for the above traits were 0.32±0.14, 0.21±0.11, 0.22±0.12, 0.17±0.11 and 0.32±0.14, respectively. Season of birth, parity and type of birth had no significant effect on any of the reproduction traits in the present study, with respect to Ghumusari goats.

Key words: Genetic correlation, heritability, kidding interval, reproduction


Field evaluation of entomopathogenic microbes against red spider mites, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) Acarina: Tetranychidae infesting tea

D. Vasantha Kumar, M. Kamalakannan and A. Babu


Field studies were carried out to find out the efficiency of entomopathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida in controlling red spider mites infesting tea. Observations were also made to find out whether the application of these entomopathogens imparts any taint effect on tea. Results of the present study showed that application of powder formulation of P. fluorescens and P. putida caused significant reduction of red spider mite population in comparison to the control and the leaves treated with entomopathogens have no taint.

Key words: Entomopathogens, Pseudomonas, red spider mites, tea


Development of carbon factor equation for Shorea robusta, Terminalia alata and Pinus roxburghii

R.K. Giri, R.A. Mandal and B.K. Rana Bahadur


This research was objectively conducted to assess forest carbon content by applying different estimation methods and develop forest carbon factor equations for Shorea robusta, Terminalia alata and Pinus roxburghii. Thus, Kailash (Bardia), Janakalyan (Surkhet) and Nyureswoti (Dailekh district) Community Forests (CFs) were selected as research site. Map of CFs was prepared. Altogether 41 nested sample plots were randomly established to collect data. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured. Out of data of 411, 128 and 139 healthy plants of S. robusta, T. alata and P. roxburghii, measured, data of 246, 79 and 91 respective plants were used to develop carbon factor equation and remaining data were used for validation purpose. Soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. Biomass was calculated using equations by Chave et al. (2005), Sharma and Pukkala (1990) and Community Forest Inventory Guideline (CFIG). Three carbon factor equations were developed for these plant species. The R2 values of equations showing carbon and DBH for S. robusta, T. alata and P. roxburghii were 0.996, 0.998 and 0.997, respectively, whereas the respective values of RMSE were 0.387, 0.160 and 0.374. The values of RSR for S. robusta, T. alata and P. roxburghii were 0.00015, 0.000987 and 0.000364, respectively while the values of PBIAS for Shorea robusta, Terminalia alata and Pinus roxburghii were 0.016, -0.015 and -0.040. Therefore, the performance of carbon factor equation will be good. Above ground tree carbon for S. robusta was found to be highest in Kailash CF with 148.74 t ha-1 using equations by CFIG and soil carbon was 36.33 t ha-1 in Nyureswoti CF. The litter, grazing and fire are major influencing factors on retention of forest carbon.

Keywords: DBH, height, carbon factor, soil carbon, fire, grazing, litter


Effect of microbial inoculation on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of Acacia nilotica

Rakesh Kumar and Diptimayee Dash


A green house study was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, IGKV, Raipur during 2015-16 to assess the response of legume tree seedlings (Acacia nilotica) to Rhizobium and PSB inoculation and to assess the influence of inoculation on biologically fixed nitrogen. The treatments were inorganic fertilization only, inoculation with Rhizobium, PSB alone and along with 25 per cent N including control. Dual inoculation of A. nilotica with Rhizobium and PSB along with 25 % nitrogen recorded significantly higher dry biomass accumulation (7.66 g per plant and 4.41 g per plant in shoot and root respectively at 90 days after planting (DAP). Nitrogen uptake by A. nilotica significantly increased from 40.19 mg per plant at control to 104.74 mg per plant at Rhizobium +PSB + 25 % N. However, maximum extra N gain was 64.55 mg per seedling over control and 37 per cent increase in shoot dry biomass accumulation at 90 DAP were obtained due to dual inoculation + 25 % N applied in A. nilotica. The more microbial population in rhizosphere soil was established by inoculation effect of legume tree. Dual inoculation along with addition of 25 % nitrogen was significantly effective in enhancing growth performances and N fixation in Acacia nilotica.

Key words : Acacia nilotica, biomass and N fixation, PSB, Rhizobium


Prevailing human - hyena conflict in Agra district, Uttar Pradesh, India and its conservation strategies

S. Ilayaraja , A. Sha. Arun, Mv. Baiju Raj


The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of the smallest of the true hyenas listed by the IUCN as near-threatened. Wildlife SOS (a non-profitable Non Governmental Organisation) with assistance from Forest department has been dedicated to work on rescue and rehabilitation of these animals as a part of conflict mitigation and concentrating to create awareness by conducting various wildlife awareness education programs in schools and villages. The human wildlife conflict involving elephants, tigers and leopards are well documented, but that of hyena is not much explored. The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena L. 1758) is a near threatened large carnivore. However, it possesses a wider distribution range than other hyena spp., the available information about its status and ecology is very limited. This study recorded six such cases encountered during 2015 to 2017. In total, seven animals were rescued and four hyenas (2M: 2F) were released after treatment, two females were dead due to massive injury and one female hyena is still under care as it became blind. The study revealed that conflict increases in winter season and females are more victimized than males.

Key words: Anthropogenic pressure, human-wildlife conflict, striped hyena, wildlife rescue


Hair morphology of dorsal guard hair of asiatic wild dog Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811)

M. Kamalakannan, D. Vasantha Kumar and J.K. De


The microscopic characteristics of dorsal guard hairs of wild dog Cuon alpinus were examined using an optical light microscope for species identification. The hair was characterised by mainly its multicellular an d narrow medulla lattice, and oblong or oval shape of cross-section. The microphotographs and ch aracteristics of dorsal guard hair of Cuon alpinus presented here can be used as an appropriate reference for the species identification.

Key words: Cuon alpinus, dorsal guard hair, microscopic characteristics, tricho-taxonomy