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Indigenous phyto-therapy of Kandha tribe for primary healthcare in Kandhamal district, Odisha

H.K. Sahoo and R.C. Misra



Kandhamal district (formerly named as Phulbani) in Odisha is the homeland of various tribal and nontribal communities out of which Kandha as predominant and the name of the district is derived from it. The medicinal plants used traditionally by Kandha tribe for healthcare needs in their day-today life was studied during the year 2014-2016, which records a total of 68 species belonging to 63 genera and 41 botanical families. The paper enumerates these species in alphabetic order with notes on their local names, parts used and their traditional practices.

Key words: Economics, efficiency indices, row spacing, wheat varieties, yield


Response of weed management to grain yield and nutrients uptake in maize (Zea mays L.)

Jawid Ali Ehsas, A.R. Salihy, M.N. Jalali, S.R. Ghafari, M.M. Samim and N. Ebrahimi


A field experiment was conducted during summer season 2015 at College Farm, Department of Agronomy, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari in clay soil. There were ten treatments, involving two pre-emergence, three tank mixtures, one post-emergence, one soil mulching, one sugarcane trash mulching, weed free and weedy check. Significantly higher grain and straw yield were registered under weed free treatment (6566 and 8135 kg ha-1, respectively), which was statistically at par with atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ha-1(6267 and 7921 kg ha-1) as PE, alachlor @ 1.5 kg ha-1+ atrazine @ 0.5 kg ha-1(5918 and 7316 kg ha-1) as PE, atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1+ 2.4 D @0.5 kg ha-1(5820 and 7276 kg ha-1) as PE, atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1 (5680 and 6856 kg ha-1) as PE and atrazine as PoE @ 1.5 kg ha-1 at 30 DAS (5619 and 6819 kg ha-1), while weed control through sugarcane trash mulch @ 5 t ha-1 and alachlor @ 1.5 kg ha-1 PE were also at par in case of straw yield. Significantly higher nutrients uptake by grains and straw was observed under weed free condition, which was statistically at par with atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1+ pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ha-1 PE, alachlor @ 1.5 kg ha-1+ atrazine @ 0.5 kg ha-1 PE, atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1+ 2.4 D 0.5 @ kg ha-1 PE and only atrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1. Highest uptake by weeds was recorded under weedy check treatment. Itrazine @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ha-1 PE registered significantly lower uptake of nutrients, while significantly higher uptake of nutrients registered under weed control by inter-culturing at 30 and 45 DAS fb HW.

Key words: Herbicide, nutrient uptake, soil mulch, tank mixture, yield


Selection indices and discriminant function analysis for grain yield in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

T.R. Das and B. Baisakh  


Ninety mutants of greengram were taken as experiment materials for estimation of selection indices among the yield components and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield based on Smith-Hazel indices. In the case of mutants of Sujata, 6.29 % higher genetic gain was observed through SC-II (multiple criteria selection) over genetic gain availed in SC-I (yield per se) while, in case of mutants of OBGG-52, 5.12 % more genetic gain was availed through SC-II multiple criteria selection ) than the genetic gain availed from SC-I (yield per se). The highest genetic advance in grain yield per plant was obtained on a linear combination of traits such as days to 50% flowering, pod length, pods per plant, 100-seed wt; grains per pod and yield per plant suggesting that the above characters could be advantageously exploited in the greengram breeding programs. Using yield per se performance and index scores based on multiple character selection criteria, twenty productive mutants of these two varieties were selected which are considered to be significantly superior mutant genotype.

Key words:Discriminant function, greengram, mutant, selection indices, seed yield


Management and yield assessment of turmeric leaf blotch

S. Behera and P. Sial


A field experiment was conducted during June 2018 to February 2019 at High Altitude Research Station, Pottangi, Koraput district under Odisha University of Agriculture and Technlogy, Bhubaneswar to evaluate various fungicides against leaf blotch of turmeric. Treatments included the fungicides Flusilazole+Carbendazim (0.1%), Hexaconazole (0.1%), Thiophonate Methyle (0.1%), Azoxystrobin+Tabuconazole (0.1%) and Carbendazim+Mancozeb (0.15%) for both rhizome treatment and foliar spray at 60 and 90 days after planting. Among the treatments, rhizome treatment and foliar application with Azoxystrobin+Tabuconazole (0.1%) shown the best result, significantly reduced disease intensity of turmeric leaf blotch (5.62%) and enhanced fresh-rhizome yield 22.33 t ha-1 followed by Carbendazim+Mancozeb (0.15%) with (6.77%) disease intensity and 21.45 t ha-1 fresh rhizome yield over control with (21.58%) disease intensity and 16.85 t ha-1 fresh rhizome yield. High cost-benefit ratio (0.91:1) was achieved with the treatment of Azoxystrobin+Tabuconazole

Key words: Azoxystrobin, carbendazim, leaf blotch , mancozeb, tabuconazole, turmeric


Arsenic-mineral interaction and ameliorative effect of vitamin E supplementation in arsenic exposed goats

R.K. Mohanta and A.K. Garg


This study was aimed at investigating the arsenic-mineral interrelationship and ameliorative efficacy of dietary vitamin E supplementation in arsenic (As) exposed kids. Three treatments, groups (T1, control; T2, 60 mg As kg-1 diet as sodium arsenite; T3, 60 mg As kg-1 diet as sodium arsenite + 250 IU vitamin E kg-1 diet) were formed with seven kids in each group in a randomized block design. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 of the experiment and analyzed for hemato-biochemistry, serum minerals and thyroid hormones. At the end of the experiment, goats were sacrificed to analyze mineral status of different vital organs. Results showed that inclusion of As in the diet adversely affected different kidney and hepatic affliction markers (hemoglobin, total protein, globulin, urea, creatinine, thyroid hormones) as well as serum and tissue mineral (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Se) concentrations. Supplementation of vitamin E (T3) at 250 IU kg-1 diet could partially ameliorate the adverse effects caused by 60 mg As kg-1 diet.

  Key words: Arsenic, kids, mineral retention, serum minerals, thyroxine


Factors affecting lac crop production and the economy of the tribals living besides Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, Balasore, Odisha

G. Shial, U.S. Nayak and K. Upadhyay


Lac is one of the most valuable gifts of nature to man. It is the only resin of animal origin, being actually the secretion of a tiny insect Kerria lacca (Kerr), which is cultured on shoots of several species of trees, mainly Palash, Kusum and Ber. It basically yields three useful materials: resin, dye and wax. It has a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, perfumes, varnishes, paints, polishes, adhesives, jewellery and textile industries. Lac production promotes biodiversity and conserves host plants. Lac crop being vulnerable to both biotic and abiotic factors results in lowering of the yield. In the study site, 95.20 per cent respondents pointed out that the one of the major constraints faced in lac cultivation were due to lack of availability of brood lac and other inputs, bad weather, low and fluctuating market, etc.

Key words: Biodiversity, biotic and abiotic factors, constraints, host plants, lac.


Successful treatment of abscess in a domestic Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus): A case study at Deogarh district of Odisha, India

R.K. Samantaray, S. Mishra and S. Mishra


A mahout brought one female domestic elephant from Banaras into Odisha during August 2013 as a routine annual movement. It was suffering from two huge abscesses, one at right foreleg and the other at left foreleg posterior to knee joint having two openings with oozing out of pus and bloody fluid. The animal was anorexic, dull and limping. As reported by the mahout, both the wounds were chronic in nature and about 10 years old. It had been treated 12 times at number of veterinary dispensaries of many different states without much improvement. Rather, in course of time, it was aggravated. Later, the elephant was presented to Veterinary Dispensary, Reamal of Deogarh District on 28.08.2013. First week, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) powder was introduced into both abscesses and flushed with luke warm potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) and followed by dressing. Combination of antibiotics like Penicillin G Sodium and Streptomycin were administered. Injections like meloxicam as analgesic, prednisolone as steroids and hivit and neuroxin-M as supportive therapy were administered intramuscularly including oral vitamin and liver supplementation. There was no improvement because of the presence of hard fibrous mass. Further, copper sulphate (CuSO4 ) was incorporated into the wound cavities twice which putrefied and degenerated the same that were embedded deep into the cavities. From 02.09.2013 to 05.09.2013, during the usage of CuSO4, antibiotics and other treatments were dropped. From 06.09.2013 to 08.09.2013, repeat usage of CuSO4 was undertaken to clear the remaining hard tissues. From 09.07.2013, wound management was taken care of including minor surgical interventions. New generation antibiotics like Intacef-Tazo (combination of Ceftriaxone and Tazobactum) in requisite doses were administered intravenously from 09.07.2013 to 17.07.2013 including supportive therapies as recommended earlier. In addition, fluid therapy, metrogyl and local antibiotics like chloramphenicol were used. During the process, proper debridement of fibrous tissue was done. Cleansing was undertaken with normal saline mixed with 10% povidine iodine. With the extensive treatment protocol maintained from 2nd to 3rd week of September 2013 with continued dressing, there were fast healing and the wound size was drastically reduced. By 3rd week left wound was almost healed and right wound was reduced to 4” size. From 3rd to 4th week, after necessary cleaning of the wound by normal saline (NaCl) mixed with 10% povidine iodine, chloramphenicol powder was applied 2-3 times daily with spraying of fly repellent all around the wound. By 4th week both the wounds were healed up with smaller swellings and circular white scar marks. The elephant restored normal feeding and movement

Key words: Abscess, antibiotics, Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), putrefy, wound


Morphometric characterisation of two species of horseshoe crabs viz. C. rotundicauda Latreille and T. gigas Muller from Bhitarkanika National Park, Odisha, India

S.D. Pradhan, N.C. Palei and S. Mishra


The morphometric characterisation of two species of horseshoe crabs viz. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille) and Tachypleus gigas (Muller) was studied from Bhitarkanika National Park, Odisha. Different age groups and sexes from both the species were investigated for morphometric and allometric studies. Various parameters, such as total body length, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma-opisthosoma hinge length, opisthosoma length, opisthosoma width, telson length were recorded. The values were found higher in female compared to the male for both the species. Allometry analysis showed significant positive correlation indicating that the different body parts increase proportionately with the gradual increase of body dimension with the advancement of growth.

Key words: Allometry, Bhitarkanika, C. rotundicauda, T. gigas, morphometric


Avifauna diversity of YSPUHF campus, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

S.R. Mohapatra, A. Kumari, H. Chowdury and A. Mahajan


Avifaunal diversity of YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry (YSPUHF) campus was studied by using Point Count method. Points were selected and point counts were carried on early in the morning from 6:30 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. and from 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. in the evening from October 2018 to May 2019. Total 156 species of birds belonging to 16 orders and 52 families were recorded. Order Passeriformes was found dominant (66.03% occurrence) with 33 family of birds. Order such as Ciconiiformes, Apodiformes, Falconiformes, Caprimulgiformes were found least occurred (0.64 % occurrence each) with only one family of bird each. Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis H.) and Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus L.) which fall under Endangered (EN) category of IUCN were observed. Species like River lapwing (Vanellus duvaucelii L.), Himalayan griffon vulture (Gyps himalayensis Hume) and Indian alexandrine parakeet (Psittacula eupatria L.) which are near threatened are also observed. University campus provides comfortable shelter, suitable grounds for foraging, roosting, site for reproduction and nesting, protection from predation and hostile atmospheric conditions to these birds. But more efforts should be made to protect endangered and near threatened species of birds in the region and the country as a whole.

Keywords: Avifaunal diversity, endangered, IUCN, point count method


Population study of tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) by trap camera photo capture in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

U.K. Das, J. Setty and V. Srivastava


An intensive habitat survey and deployment of camera trap for photo capture of large cats was conducted for a period of 8 months (February 2007 to October 2007) in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. This paper deals with the results obtained from the camera trap photo captures of tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). All the six forest ranges of Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary viz. Katarniaghat, Nishangadha, Murtiha, Dharmapur, Kakraha and Motipur were surveyed for carnivore signs, ungulate encounter rate, vegetation types and photo captures of tigers by installation of camera traps. Maximum importance was given to the core areas of the sanctuary i.e. Katarniaghat and Nisangada range. A set of 20 pairs of Camera trap (Make Deercam) units were deployed in 2/ 2 km grid area location for 16 days. And the process continues in buffer area further 1 month. A total of 5 individual tigers confirmed to be resident and signs of movement of additional 3- 4 tigers found in transition zones in Nepal and Kishannagar forest division. Additional data on prey base, co-predators, and other floral composition were recorded during the study. The study also revealed the presence of rare rusty spotted cat, leopard cat and honey badger in the said wildlife sanctuary

Key words : Camera trap, Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, photo capture, rusty spotted cat, tiger


A comparative study of two different methods for synthesis of copper nanoparticles

Pragyan Roy and Pragnya Priyadarshini


Synthesis of copper nanoparticles was done using green chemistry and green synthesis, using plant leaf extract Murraya koenigii. The efficacy of two methods was compared by focussing on some of the parameters like particle size, stability and antibacterial activity. On treatment of aqueous solution of CuSO4 ∙5H2 O with Murraya koenigii leaf extract, stable copper nanoparticles were formed. UVvis spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of copper nanoparticles. To 1.2% of aqueous starch solution CuSO4 ∙5H2 O was added in the presence of ascorbic acid as the capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis Spectroscopy and DLS. By DLS analysis of copper nanoparticles particle size was of 133.4 nm for curry leaf extract and 43.42 nm for green chemistry was observed. Stability of green chemistry synthesized copper nanoparticle was more as compared to biosynthesized nanoparticle. Antibacterial tests showed that biosynthesized copper nanoparticles were more effective as compared to green chemistry synthesized nanoparticle. As a possible green alternative to physical and chemical processes, biogenesis of copper nanoparticle using plant extract may have application in various water purification systems.

Key words: antibacterial activity, biogenesis, copper nanoparticles, green chemistry, plant extract (Murraya koenigii),


Evaluation of impacts of cyclones on the livelihood status of the people of coastal Odisha and its remedial measures

D. Acharya and G.K. Panda


The present paper evaluates the impact of cyclones on the livelihood of people in Coastal Odisha (period). Fourteen years after the super cyclone 1999, the severe cyclonic storm Phailin hits the coasts of Odisha on October 12, 2013. The very next year 2014, Odisha was under the threat of another very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Hudhud. While the tropical cyclone Daye made the landfall near Gopalpur on September 20, 2018 VSCS Titli made its landfall in Andhra Pradesh coast, adjacent to Gopalpur further south, resulting in severe damage to crops. The storm especially devastated farmers who were preparing to harvest paddy and other crops. Summer crops, orchards, plantations were devastated in a large scale. Although the number of causalities in the recent cyclones had been quite less as compared to the super cyclone 1999, there had been severe economic and ecological losses. Keeping view of the above, the study was conducted in the coastal districts of Puri and Ganjam which are vulnerable to frequent cyclones and its associated disasters. The study findings over agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery sector demonstrated that the cyclones and its related weather vagaries have affected the people, their livelihood and economy in the study area significantly

Key words: Agriculture, cyclone, economic loss, fisheries, livelihood, vulnerable