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Organic farming, a better option for enhancing farm income: A study on ginger crop in North Eastern Hill Region of India

S. Chiphang, R. Singh and S.M. Feroze



Organic farming is recognized as one of the most reasonable alternative farming systems for overcoming the challenges of climate change and for its positive effect on human health, sustainability of soil, water and crop yields. The study was conducted in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) adopting multistage sampling technique. Sikkim was selected purposively as the control state and Meghalaya was selected based on the highest production of ginger in the region. East Sikkim district and East Garo hill were selected out of which Nangdok block from east Sikkim district and Dambo-Rongjeng block from East Garo hill were selected randomly. A cluster of 1-2 villages were selected randomly from each block. At the last stage 60 respondents, 30 organic adopters and 30 non-adopters were selected using probability proportional to size method. Standard defined techniques, independent t-test and Cohen’s d test were applied. The study revealed that the cost of cultivation was lower for the organic adopter (`69797.31 ha-1) as compared to the non-adopter (`71974.50 ha-1). The net income of the organic adopter was Rs 10569.35 per ha, which was higher than the non-adopter (`5500.50 ha-1). The yield was also found to be significantly higher for the organic adopters (7209.96 kg ha-1)..

Key words: Cost of cultivation, net income, North Eastern Hill Region, organic farming, yield


Effectiveness and efficiency of physical and chemical mutagens in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

T.R. Das and B. Baisakh


A field experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness and efficiency of one physical mutagen i.e. gamma rays and three chemical mutagens i.e. ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and their combinations in greengram. To study the nature and effect of mutagens in greengram, the percentage of lethality, pollen sterility, frequency of chlorophyll mutations, mutagenic effectiveness, mutagenic efficiency and mutation rates of each mutagen were estimated. The result from the study indicated that the values of mutagenic effectiveness gradually decreased with increases in dose or concentration of mutagens. NG exhibited as the most effective mutagen, whereas EMS found as the most efficient mutagen. Among combined treatments, gamma rays with NG found as more effective than other mutagenic combinations. Among all the mutagenic treatments the maximum efficiency observed in EMS 0.2% treatment (based on pollen sterility) and NG 0.01% treatment (based on lethality), whereas the lowest efficiency observed in MH 0.03% treatment basing on lethality as well as pollen sterility. Among all mutagens, the maximum mutation rate based on lethality observed in NG treatments, whereas a higher mutation rate based on pollen sterility observed for EMS treatments which can further be increased in combination with gamma rays.

Key words : Chemical mutagens, gamma rays, greengram, mutagenic effectiveness, mutagenic efficiency, mutation rate


Use of customized leaf colour chart for input saving and disease occurrence in rice var. Swarna (MTU-7029)

D.R. Sarangi, M. Chourasia, T.R. Sahoo, S.M. Prasad, S. Sethy, S.K. Das and R.K. Mohanta  


A field experiment was conducted in three villages of Cuttack district, during kharif 2014 and 2015, to study effects of application of nitrogenous fertilizer basing on use of customized leaf colour chart (CLCC) in transplanted rice var. Swarna on time of N application, incidence of disease and pest, grain yield, and economics. Nitrogen fertigation time differed from conventional time when CLCC was used by nearly 3-5 days along with saving of N fertilizer. Severity index for sheath blight was less in trial plots (0.6) than in farmer practice (1.8). The incidence of leaf folder also decreased by 57.49% in the trial plots as compared to farmers practice. However, the grain yield did not increase significantly in the CLCC based N applied plots as compared to farmers practice. These findings indicated that judicious use of nitrogenous fertilizer by using CLCC based recommendation could improve nitrogen use efficiency, saves N, reduces incidence of leaf folder and sheath blight without affecting the economical attributes in the farmers’ fields.

Key words:Disease, leaf colour chart, nitrogen, pest, rice


Performance of ginger and turmeric as intercrops in mango based agroforestry system in the Eastern Ghat high land zone of Odisha /strong>

M.R. Nayak, S. Rout, P.J. Mishra, L.K. Murmu and J.R. Maharana


Performance of two rhizomatous spice crops i.e. ginger (var. Suprava) and turmeric (var. Roma) in pure stands and as intercrops with 7-year-old mango plantation at 8 m × 8 m was investigated under rainfed conditions of Eastern Ghat High Land Zone of Odisha. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four treatments and seven replications. Both crops performed better as intercrops than as pure stands. Plant height, tillers per plant, leaves per plant and leaf length in ginger and turmeric were significantly enhanced when intercropped. The rhizome length, yield per plant and yield per ha in both the crops also increased under mango grove as compared to sole cropping. Due to shade loving nature of ginger and turmeric, plant growth and yield was significantly higher in mango intercropping.

Key words: Agroforestry, ginger, mango, rhizome, turmeric


Effect of irrigation frequency on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chonte 1) under Kabul agro-climatic conditions, Afghanistan

R. Zahiryan and H. Hamayoun


A field experiment was conducted under Kabul agro-ecological conditions at the Agriculture faculty research farm and Botanical garden, Faculty of Agriculture, Kabul University to study the effects of different irrigation frequency on growth, yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 2018-2019, wheat cultivar (Chonte 1) was grown with different irrigation intervals in every 5, 7, 9, 11 days. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The parameters studied were plant height, dry matter, number of tillers per m2, number of spikes per m2, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spikelet and spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and spike length. The results showed that there were highly significant differences in the studied parameters due to irrigation intervals, where the irrigation in every seven days recorded higher values. Hence seven days’ irrigation interval (T2) treatment would be the most advantageous for finding better growth and higher yield in spring wheat production in the studied region and among the morphological and yield attributing characters. Through the treatment 4, the minimum values in the traits like grains per spike, shortest spike, the lowest weight of 1000-seed, the lowest yield of grain and dry matter content were obtained.

  Key words: Growth, irrigation frequency, wheat variety Chonte 1, yield


Organic amendments on soil nutrient balance under mid hills of Meghalaya

R.S. Dhivya, Lala I.P. Ray and U.K. Behera


To assess the soil nutrient balance under different organic sources, an experiment was conducted during 2018-19 at the experimental farm, College of Agriculture, Kyrdemkullai, Meghalaya. The treatments were in the combination of priming, mulching and manuring. FYM (Farmyard manure), pig manure, poultry manure and maize stover mulch were used as organic inputs. Seed priming was done with liquid washes of manures and water as control. The apparent N and P balance was estimated and was observed that the apparent N balance i.e. N build up at 0-15 cm was higher under T9 (66.45 kg ha-1) followed by T8 (61.95 kg ha-1) and at 15-30 cm T9 (62.23 kg ha-1) followed by T8 (55.63 kg ha-1). In P balance, the P loss was found under T10 (3.51 and 2.25 kg ha-1 at 0-15 and 15-30 cm respectively). In all the other treatments, there was gain i.e. no loss in P and was higher under T9 (12.70 kg ha-1) followed by T3 (11.19 kg ha-1) at 0-15 cm and at 15-30 cm, T9 (16.47 kg ha-1) and T8 (16.01 kg ha-1) had the maximum gain in P. The results revealed that poultry manure had the maximum gain in N and P followed by pig manure and FYM along with mulching and may be preferred over others.

Key words: Black gram, mulching, north-eastern India, nutrient balance, organic agriculture, seed priming


Socio-economic factors affecting the role of women in family poultry production: A case study at Paghman district, Kabul province, Afghanistan

M.M. Nicnam and S.R. Ghafari


Although several studies have been carried out globally on the factors influencing the marketable eggs of women chicken farmers (WCFs), the studies in Afghanistan remain scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to ascertain the main socioeconomic factors affecting their level of weekly eggs sold to the market (WESM). For accomplishment of this study, secondary and primary data were utilized. For data collection, two field surveys were conducted in 2015 and 2016, and interviews were made with 120 WCFs using semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression techniques were applied to determine the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The sociodemographic results of the study revealed that 90% of the households were maleheaded with no formal education (90.8%). Their flock size ranged from a maximum number of 50 to a minimum of 3 birds with an average number of 26. Their WESM varied from 5-280, with a mean of 117 eggs per week. The econometric results of the study illustrated that F-value for the model is 49.803 and significant at 1% significance level. R2 Value of the model was equal to 0.820 and adjusted R2 = 0.804. However, the relationship among WESM and the independent dummy variables of land access (r = 0.033), project membership (0.014), poultry experience (1-3 years) (0.022), and age (less than 30 years) (0.024) were positive and insignificant. On the contrary, model showed negative coefficient signs for the other insignificant variables family jobholders (r = - 0.011), married (r = - 0.042), and illiteracy (r = - 0.030). Regression analysis of the dataset ultimately revealed that 3 independent variables viz: flock size (r = 0.013), family size (r = -0.024), and feeding cost (r = 0.001) out of ten were significantly correlated with WESM at 1% level of confidence.

Key words: Kabul province, marketable eggs, Paghman district, socio-economic factors, women chicken farmer


Impact of fly ash on germination and initial seedling growth of vegetable hummingbird [Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poiret]

O. Lachungpa, M.C. Behera, H. Nayak and T.L. Mohanty


Impact of fly ash (FA) was studied on germination and initial seedling growth performance of Sesbania grandiflora during 2016-2017. Growing media was prepared by admixing FA to forest soil (S) at five concentrations (%) 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 (w/w). The experimental design was CRD with six treatments and three replications. Freshly collected seeds were washed with cold water and sown at 2.0-3.0 cm depth in germination trays filled with media of different treatments. Significant (P<0.05) variation in germination period, rate, capacity and index with respect to FA concentration in media was observed (n=100). Maximum rate (86.67%) and index (2.04) were found in media having 20% FA after 30 days of sowing. After 90 days of transplanting significant difference (P>0.05) in seedling survival rate, plant height, diameter growth, nodules per plant and seedling quality index were observed. The survival rate (91.57%), plant height (62.07 cm) and root nodule number was (31.67) and seedling quality index (0.66) were maximum at 40% FA. It is concluded form the present investigation that FA can be admixed @ 20% (w/w) in forest nurseries for improving germination and @40% (w/w) for promoting seedling growth and quality improvement

Key words: Forest nursery, fly ash added substrate, germination catalyst, pollution control


Molecular diagnosis and therapeutic management of EEHV HD in a free ranging Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): A case study at Chandaka, Odisha

S. Panigrahi, B. Swain, S. Panda, B. Behera, A. Pahari, S.K. Panda and N. Sahoo


A free ranging sub-adult elephant of about 9 years age was found in comatose condition inside Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary, Odisha without any gross external lesions. Rectal temperature was 95.2°F. Blood sample was collected in EDTA and clot activator vials for haematological and molecular investigation as recent cases of death were reported in four captive juvenile elephants in Nandankanan Zoological Park due to elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus (EEHV) 1. Blood parameters such as haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and total platelet count were performed following standard procedures. Initial haematology was indicative of leucocytosis (TLC- 22,000 per cubic mm) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count 80,000 per cubic mm). Molecular diagnosis of EEHV haemorrhagic disease was carried out through real time and conventional PCR for detection of terminase and E36A/EE6/ U79 genes. The blood sample was found positive in real-time PCR with the cycle threshold (Ct) value of 26.53 for Terminase gene as against the Ct value of 21.07 in positive control. An aggressive therapy was followed. Parenteral administration of acyclovir @ 5.0 mg kg-1 body weight i/v and methyl-prednisolone @ 1.0 mg kg-1 body weight i/v showed progressive signs of improvement in the recumbent animal. The elephant calf responded positively by control of body temperature along with frequent attempts to get up and intake of leaves, fruits and fodders. However, the elephant succumbed on the 6 th day. The postmortem examination revealed tongue cyanosis and haemorrhages in internal organs. As endotheliotropic herpes virus haemorrhagic disease is mostly fatal, a correct treatment regimen with management practices need to be practised for successful overcoming and need to attempt as early as possible.

Key words: Asian elephant, herpes virus, molecular diagnosis, therapy


Birds of Balukhand-Konark Wildlife Sanctuary, Puri, Odisha, India

N.C. Palei, A.K. Bal, B.P. Rath and H.B. Udgata


The study on bird diversity of Balukhanda-Konark Wildlife Sanctuary of Puri, District, Odisha was carried out between February 2017 to January 2018. During the study period, a total of 230 species of birds belonging to 59 families and 20 orders were recorded. Out of 230 species a total 49% (n=113) species resident bird, 44% (n=100) species winter visitor, 5% (n=12) species passage visitor and 2% (n=5) species summer visitor were recorded in the study area. According to the frequency of sighting of birds recorded in study area, 111 species (48%) were common, 65 species (28%) were uncommon, 31 species (14%) were rare and 23 species (10%) were occasional.

Key words: Abundance, avifauna, Balukhanda-Konark Wildlife Sanctuary, migratory bird


Carbon sequestration potential of Eucalyptus spp.: A review

L.K. Behera, Lala I.P. Ray, M.R. Nayak, A.A. Mehta and S.M. Patel


Climate change has become an important and sensitive environmental issue that has captured the global attention of many intellectuals during the recent past. The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is believed to have contributed significantly to the climate change. Among all the available options, the use of perennial woody vegetation is an efficient, cost-effective and environmental friendly strategy for storing and sequestering the atmospheric carbon. According to the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement, carbon sequestration through afforestation and reforestation by long-term rotational tree crops are potentially mitigation strategies as carbon credit for many countries to meet their commitments of green house gas emissions reduction. Besides, the wood production from agroforestry plantations will reduce pressure from timber extraction in natural forests. Therefore, the tree like Eucalyptus spp. has been selected for the study to provide both the benefits not only for harvesting the year round and for mitigating the climate change to compensate green house gas emission but also for sequestering the atmospheric carbon. The study concluded that the Eucalyptus plantations have significant contribution in carbon sequestration potential.

Key words:Carbon sequestration, climate change, Eucalyptus, fast growing, short rotation


Factors influencing establishment of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f) plantation: A review

A. Mohapatra, H. Nayak and O. Das


Teak, the most valuable timber species of tropics, covers about 4.346 million ha of forest and represents 75% of high tropical hardwood plantations. Considering its importance, the species is now introduced in large areas outside its natural ranges such as Indian subcontinent and south eastern Asia. Due to large natural range, the local factors vary significantly. Teak is a light adoring species and found in areas with rainfall varying from 500 mm to 5000 mm and in temperature ranges of 2°C to 48°C. Well drained alluvial soil with acidic pH (6.5), made of volcanic origin and with high limestone content is good for better growth of the species. The productivity of a plantation can be largely improved through the selection of a correct site for the plantation programme. Presence of different macro and micronutrients affect the anatomical properties of wood of this species. According to its growth performance in different countries different sites qualities are present like poor, moderate and good. Teak is a species of tropical summer rain climate is generally absent in dipterocarp forest. Due to huge profitability of the timber species sometimes the agriculture lands are converted into plantation area. It is found that factors like climate (rainfall, temperature, light etc.) and edaphic (soil physical and chemical properties, topography etc.) should be taken in to consider before selection of site, as its rotation period is too long.

Key words:Climate, ecological significance, geology, site condition, soil, Tectona grandis