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Prospects of plant based edible vaccines in combating COVID-19 and other viral pandemics: A review

T.R. Das, R.K. Samantarai and P.K. Panda



Many pathogenic viruses have always posed serious threats and challenges to human existence by causing epidemic and pandemic outbreaks and losses of millions of lives every year. Recently, a novel corona virus, COVID-19 has been creating havoc with huge numbers of casualties the world over. Vaccination with a suitable vaccine is the hope for the survival of humans on earth. Vaccines are used as prophylactic as well as curative measures against viral diseases and are effective in eradicating deadly pathogens. Conventional vaccines though effective but have high production costs, involve tedious purification processes and have bio safety issues, requiring time-consuming tests and procedures for commercial production whereas plant-based vaccines offer several advantages over the conventional systems such as ease of production, suitable folding of foreign protein, target protein stability, higher yields, storage, and safety. Plant based edible vaccines can play a major role in immunization to control the viral diseases across the world, especially in poor and developing countries as these products can be easily scaled up for millions of doses within a limited period and can save millions of life who now die for lack of access to the traditional vaccine. The edible vaccine has the potential to solve the problem of bioterrorism by immunizing against a wide range of different dreaded viruses and can save the earth from any future epidemic and pandemic. It could become the best and cheapest alternative to conventional vaccines, for which there is a great need to strengthen research and development activities in this promising area so that in near future children may get immunized by foods instead of painful immunization through needles.

Key words: Bioreactors, COVID-19, human viral diseases, pandemic, plant edible vaccines


Glyphosate resistance in rice: An overview

S.K. Tripathy, K. Kiran, K.C. Barik, R.K. Sahu and M. Mishra


Productivity of rice is influenced by a number of biotic and abiotic factors. Among these, weed accounts as a major constraint for rice production. It competes with the associated crops for water, soil nutrients, space, and light resulting in drastic reduction in crop yield. Manual and mechanical weeding incurs huge cost and often becomes impracticable, especially in areas with heavy weed infestation. However, non-selective herbicide particularly glyphosate proved to be a feasible solution to eradicate weed infestation, but it’s off target movement to rice negatively influences plant growth, survival and seed yield. Therefore, development of herbicide resistance in rice turns to be the major focus in rice breeding. In the present study, the authors presented a detailed review of the weed management along with mode of action, weed resistance, genetic basis of glyphosate resistance, scope for exploring natural resistance, screening methodology and possible ways for development of glyphosate resistance in rice to confer selectivity and enhance crop safety and production.

Key words: Genetics, glyphosate resistance, mechanism, mode of action, natural resistance, rice breeding


Fluidized bed drying of food: A review

A.K. Senapati, A.K. Varshney, V.K. Sharma and S. Patel  


Application of fluidized bed drying in food has been increased significantly in recent years. The fluidization technologies have been used for product development, energy efficiencies and overall quality in the final products in the area of food processing and preservation. However, this review paper evaluates different produces dried under fluidized bed dryer and to maintain the quality as well as the sensory characteristics of the dried products. This review paper suggests that fluidized bed drying certainly maintained a better drying compare to conventional drying (i.e. hot air cabinet drying) with respect to drying time, drying temperature and energy consumption of food.

Key words: Drying, fluidize bed drying, food products and quality attributes


Integrated nutrient management practices for sustainable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production: A case study of Ghazni province of Afghanistan

S.R. Ghafari, M.O. Darwish and H. Faizy


A field experiment was carried out during spring season of 2020 at Ghazni province, Afghanistan to evaluate the effects of integrated nutrient management on growth and productivity of soybean and to develop a suitable fertilizer package of integration of inorganic fertilizers with biological and organic manures for soybean. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications having seven treatments. T1 = Absolute control, T2 =100% RDF, T3 = 75% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1), T4 = 75% RDF + BF (Rhizobium + PSB), T5 = 50% RDF + FYM (10 t ha-1), T6 = 50% RDF + BF (Rhizobium + PSB), T7 = 50% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + BF (Rhizobium + PSB). Perusal of the results revealed that application of 50% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + BF(Rhizobium + PSB) recorded significantly higher plant height, number of branches, number of root nodules, number of pods per plant (82.7), number of seeds per pod (2.6), 100 seeds weight (12.5 g), seed yield (2687.5 kg ha-1) and straw yield (4424.8 kg ha-1) and gross return (196,977 Afn. ha-1) over control and treatment that received 50% RDF + BF(Rhizobium + PSB). Although, the maximum net return (145,801 Afn. ha-1) was obtained with 100% RDF, but it was non-significant with the application of 50% RDF + BF+ 5t FYM ha-1(143,227 Afn. ha-1). Based on the result of experiment it is recommended that for remunerative soybean cultivation and soil health, the farmer should apply 50% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + BF (Rhizobium + PSB).

Key words: Biofertilizer, FYM, integrated nutrient management, soybean


Response of hybrid maize to application of nutrients in laterite soil

A.K. Gumpha, B.K. Mohapatra, P. Naik and P. Majhi


A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2019 at the Instructional Livestock Farm, of OUAT, Bhubaneswar, India, to study the response of hybrid maize to application of nutrients in laterite soil. The hybrid maize variety Kalinga Raj (OMH 14-27) was grown for the experiment. There were eight treatments comprising nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2 O5 ) and potassium (K2 O) such as T1 -120:60:60 kg ha-1,T2 -120:60:60 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Borax @10 kg ha-1,T3 -150:75:75 kg ha1 ,T4 -150:75:75 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Borax @ 10 kg ha-1, T5 -180:90:90 kg ha-1, T6 -180:90:90 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1+Borax @10 kg ha-1,T7 -STBFR (150:39:45 kg N:P2 O5 :K2 O ha-1) + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Borax @10 kg ha-1 and T8 - STCR (216: 15: 21 kg N:P2 O5 :K2 O ha-1) laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Results revealed that, T7 – Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation (STBFR) + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Borax @ 10 kg ha-1 recorded maximum grain yield (8256 kg ha-1) and stover yield (10353 kg ha-1) followed by treatment T8 - Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) based fertilizer application. Minimum grain yield (6737 kg ha-1) and stover yield (9644 kg ha-1) were recorded in treatment of T1 , the conventional farmers’ practice is being followed in Odisha since long. The treatment T7 also recorded the most effective plant growth parameters such as plant height (212.87 cm) and number of green leaves per plant (11.73), leaf area index (2.26), dry matter accumulation (1423.76 g m-2) and crop growth rate (6.54 g m-2 day -1) at the time of harvest, number of days to 50% tasseling (56.33), number of days to 50% silking (58.00) followed by T8 which was at par with T7 . T7 treatment also recorded significantly maximum yield attributes such as cob length (18.06 cm), cob girth (15.94 cm), number of rows per cob (15.2), number of grains per row (32.13), 1000 grain weight (282.74 g) followed by T8 . Cost of cultivation was Rs. 36000 ha-1 in T1 . T7 fetched the maximum gross return (Rs.141678 ha-1) and net return (Rs. 99178 ha-1) with benefit: cost ratio of 3.33 which was found to be highest as compared to other approaches of nutrient management practices.

  Key words: Growth parameters, hybrid maize, STBFR, STCR fertilizer application, yield attributes


Effect of nitrogen on yield and yield attributes of soybean in Kunar, Afghanistan

A. Khalili, S. Dhar, M.H. Mohammadi and M. Rasooli


A field experiment was conducted at Research farm of Agriculture Faculty of Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani University in Kunar during 2020 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and time of applications on yield and yield attributes of soybean. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated thrice consisted of seven treatments Viz; T1 : Control, T2 : 12.5 kg N ha-1 as basal, T3 :25 kg N ha-1 as basal, T4 : 50 kg N ha-1 as basal, T5 : 6.25 kg N ha-1 as basal + 6.26 kg N ha-1 at flowering Stage, T6 :12.5 kg N ha-1 at basal + 12.5 kg N ha-1 at flowering stage and T7 : 25 kg N ha-1 at basal + 25 kg N ha-1 at flowering stage. The highest reproductive attributes like pod length, pods per plant, seeds per pod, seed index, grain and straw yield were found in T7 which was statistically similar to T6 and the lowest values of all the parameters were obtained from control treatment. The overall finding of this study indicated that 25 kg N ha-1 at basal + 25 kg N ha-1 at flowering stage can be applied to achieve better yield attributes and yield of soybean.

Key words: Nitrogen, soybean, rates and time of applications, yield and yield attributes


Effect of phosphorus levels on soil carbon fractions in acid soil

N.J. Singh, T. Kharkongor and Lala I.P. Ray


A pot experiment carried out to understand the effect of phosphorous (P) application on different soil carbon fraction in acidic soil at the research farm of College of PG Studies in Agricultural Sciences (CPGS-AS), CAU (I) revealed that the microbial carbon fraction (MBC) and particulate organic matter (POM) were increased with the application of phosphorous. About 16.67% soil organic carbon (SOC), 19.09% oxidizable organic carbon fraction 1 (OOC1), 23.46% oxidizable organic carbon fraction 2 (OOC2) and 16.67% oxidizable organic carbon fraction 3 (OOC3) were decreased with application of T5 (NPK @ 80:100:40 kg ha-1) over T0 (NPK @ 80:0:40 kg ha-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was decreasing 16.73% with application of T5 (NPK @ 80:100:40 kg ha-1) over T0 (NPK @ 80:0:40 kg ha-1). However, 5% hot water extractable carbohydrates (HWC) and 2.4% water extractable carbohydrates (WC) were increased with application of T5 (NPK @ 80:100:40 kg ha-1) over T0 . The SOC, OOC2, OOC3 at 30 DAS and OOC3 at crop maturity were decreasing. The SOC and OOC2 at crop maturity were finally gained its content at crop maturity. The POM, DOC, MBC and WC were lower at crop maturity than those at 30 DAS.

Key words: Available phosphorous, land use, soil organic carbon, topography, Umiam


Infestation of yellowtip halfbeak fish, Hemiramphus marginatus (Lesueur 1821), a new host of Nerocila exocoeti (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) in South East coast of India

S.N. Sethi, S.K. Patra and M.K. Tripathy


The ecto-parasite Nerocila exocoeti (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) is reported for the first time from the yellowtip halfbeak fish, Hemiramphus marginatus (Teleostei, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae), collected from Light House Kuppam, Marina Beach, Chennai, South-east coast of India. This was abnormal position on the head surface of host fishes is unique. This black isopod naturally occurs in the marine fish belongs to Exocoetidae family. This is the second time this isopod has been collected in the south coast of India and the first for this host fishes. Nerocila exocoeti parasitized 22.55% (15 of 150) of the examined Hemiramphus marginatus.

Key words: Hemiramphus marginatus, Isopod, Nerocila exocoeti, yellowtip halfbeak fish


Population density, nesting ecology and conservation of the Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) Erxleben, 1777 in protected areas of Odisha

U.K. Das, R.K. Samantarai, V.K. Tyagi and S. Panth


The population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour and conservation aspects of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) across six major habitats in the tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Odisha are discussed. The species is listed as Least Concern in Red List Data of IUCN and in Schedule I (Part -I) of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. More than 162 hours were spent in the field survey at different habitats mostly for observing the feeding and activity pattern of Indian giant squirrel including different other wild animal species. Observations were recorded in Budhagiri hills, Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS), Sunabeda WLS, Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR), Kuldiha, Kapilash and Lakhari Valley WLS, and proposed Mahendragiri Biosphere Reserve. In total, 38 sightings were recorded from 79 km line transect walk. As per the findings, the Kapilas WLS recorded the high density population i.e. 4.6 squirrels per sq km, whereas Mahendragiri shown the lowest population i.e. 1.2 individuals per sq km. It was inferred that the lowest population density of Indian giant squirrel in Mahendragiri was because of poor canopy cover with low girth evergreen shola forest tree species.

Key words: Eastern Ghats, ecology, feeding, Indian giant squirrel, shola forest


Avifaunal diversity of National Zoological

P. Khan, M. Kumar and R.K. Pandey


The present study was aimed to prepare a checklist of avifaunal diversity of National Zoological Park (NZP), Delhi. The survey carried out from 20 January 2020 to 30 November 2020. During the survey, a total of 124 species belonging to 52 families were recorded which comprised 69 non-passerine and 55 passerine species. Our efforts resulted in the documentation of accurate data of all the avifaunal species. Based on the collected data highest bird species were found from Muscicapidae (12 species) family, followed by Columbidae (7 species), Anatidae (6 species), Ardeidae (6 species) and Sturnidae (6 species). Black kite (Milvus migrans), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), Jungle babbler (Turdoides striata), Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Grey hornbill (Tockus birostris), Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria), Green pigeon (Treron phoenicoptera) and Purple Sunbird (Nectarinia asiaticus) were the most abundance and dominant bird species of NZP. The survey data shows that NZP supports a vast variety of avifaunal species diversity. The impressive amount of birds provides ecosystem services, food and aesthetic values for visitor and staffs around NZP. However, the survival of species depends upon the conservation of NZP's natural forest, foraging fauna and artificial ponds.

Key words: Avifaunal diversity, feeding habitat, National Zoological Park, species richness


Geo-spatial analysis of land use and land cover in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha

D.R. Behera, R.N. Samal, S. Pradhan, N.C. Palei and K.M. Sethy


Mapping and monitoring of land use land cover (LULC) changes is vital for sustainable development, planning and management. Based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the study is an attempt to monitor the changes in LULC patterns of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary in Kendrapara District of Odisha for the period of 30 years from 1990 to 2020. The total area of the Bhitarkanika Sanctuary is taken under study with an area of 672 km2 . This study aimed to calculate changes in LULC within the period of 30 years with an interval of 10 years respectively i.e. 1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2020 and satellite data were used to identify the change. The use of geo-informatics has enabled us to assign spatial connotations to land use land cover changes namely, population pressure, climate, terrain, etc., which drive these changes. This has helped scientists to quantify these tools and to predict various scenarios. However, Landsat Satellite images adequately aided to detect changes brought down by man or nature in due course of time in three decades which was analysed for the study area. The study aims to detect the change in different land use land cover categories within the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary. Ancillary data and local expert knowledge were necessary to expose long-term trends and formulate explanations in a region that surrounds and includes a sanctuary which have been largely devoid of significant direct anthropogenic impact. The reasons for such changes could generally be explained with detailed field-based data sets and such information does not exist at the requisite spatial and temporal scales. Remote sensing datasets, e.g., Landsat imagery, provided the only feasible method to enumerate the trends in land use and land cover in the spatially extensive study area. The changes in the pre and post classification maps were performed by comparison of area based on different land use classes and using change matrix analysis. The result highlighted the changes in the spatial extent of the mangroves and other land use categories in the study areas as a result in due course of time. The present study also deals with periodic assessment and monitoring of the mangroves of Bhitarkanika Sanctuary.

Key words: GIS, land use and land cover, mangroves, mud flat, remote sensing, satellite imageries