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Effect of coffee husk and nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) at Dilla, South Ethiopia.

E.M. Firehiwot,T.B. Achenef, and B.D. Habitamu.

 

 ABSTRACT

Soil fertility decline is a major constraint to agricultural production and productivity. A field experiment was conducted during the rainy season of 2012-13 at Dilla University, College of Agriculture farm to study the effects of coffee husk and nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of maize. Factorial combinations of four rates of coffee husk (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.20 t ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 16, 32 and 64 kg ha-1) were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Before incorporation of the husk, a composite soil sample was taken from the experimental plots (0- 30 cm depth) to observe some selected soil physico-chemical properties. The results of the soil sample test showed that the soil of the experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture; neutral in reaction (pH = 6); very low in organic matter content(0.83%); low to medium in its total nitrogen (0.14%); low in available phosphorous (8 mg kg-1) and slightly alkaline EC (4.5). Plant height, number of rows per ear, and 100 kernels weight were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the coffee husk and N. However, significant effects (P< 0.05) were observed on days to tasseling, physiological maturity, harvest index, and grain and stover yield. The maximum grain yield (118 q ha-1) was obtained from the application of 32 kg N ha-1 and maximum plant height (2.55m) was attained at 0.8t/ ha husk. On the other hand, the highest values of stover yield (493 q ha-1) was obtained at 64kg N ha-1 and harvest index (27%) were obtained on application of 32kg N ha-1. Generally, the inorganic nutrient source applied alone and in combination with organic source has improved most of the yield related traits and yield of maize. 

 

 

Bruchid resistance in mung bean: An overview

S. MAHATO1, M. JENA2, P. MOHANTY2, C. BEHERA2, N. SENAPATI2, G. B. DASH2,P. K. NAYAK2, D. LENKA2 AND SWAPAN K. TRIPATHY 

 ABSTRACT

Bruchid is a major threat to mung bean in storage. No cultivated variety of mung bean is free from bruchid attack. However, a wild form of mung bean (TC 1966) and few pure line selections (V2709BG and V2802BG) of Indian origin land races are completely immune to both Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus. Bruchid resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene (Br) and it is mapped on chromosome 8. Conventional back cross breeding coupled with molecular marker aided selection can accelerate the breeding process for bruchid resistance. A number of toxic antimetabolic compounds (secondary metabolites, antinutritional seed proteins, protein inhibitors, enzyme inhibitors etc) have insecticidal activity in different food legumes. Among these, a gene from common bean encoding alpha amylase inhibitor-1(á AI-1) has been largely attempted for genetic transformation in mung bean. Mung bean is recalcitrant to in vitro culture process. Therefore, efficient reproducible plant regeneration protocol and novel technique for transfer of the resistance gene(s) driven by a suitable seed specific promoter is needed for successful genetic transformation. But, its potential for acceptance by farmers relies on clarification of safety for human consumption.

 

Elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus infection in Asian elephant: A global perspective

SOURABH RANJAN HOTA AND NIRANJANA SAHOO*

ABSTRACT

Endotheliotrophic herpes virus infection is an emerging infectious disease threatening the captive and free ranging Asian elephant. The disease is caused by Elephant endotheliotropic herpes viruses (EEHVs), member of the family Betaherpesviridae, subfamily Betaherpesvirinae and order Herpesvirales. Disease is transmitted during oral and genital contact. Three clinical forms are recognised i.e., peracute, acute and subacute. Predominantly it is characterized by fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in calves and juvenile elephants. Other signs include anorexia, facial edema of thorax, lethargy, lameness, oral ulceration, cyanosis of tongue and altered behaviour. Besides clinical signs, postmortem findings, histopathology, ELISA, PCR and electron microscopy studies are employed to confirm antiherpesviral drugs. Antiviral drugs like Famciclovir , Acyclovir, Ganciclovir, Penciclovir and valganciclovir are of some value in early stage of disease. Avoidance of possible stress factors, external or internal, may keep the elephant healthy especially in carrier stage.

 

Combining ability and nature of gene action associated with seed yield and its component traits in field bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] genotypes

AVINALAPPA H. HOTTI AND RUDRA NAIK 

ABSTRACT

Six lines were crossed with three testers in line x tester mating design to estimate combining ability for yield and yield attributing traits in field bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet]. The variance due to general combining ability (GCA) was lesser than the variance due to specific combining ability (SCA) for all the characters under study except for number of pods per plant and the ratio of GCA to the SCA variance for these traits was less than unity except for number of pods per plant, which indicated the role of dominance gene action in the inheritance of these characters. The female parents DA-11 and DA-12 and the male parent DA-14 were identified as good general combiners for most of the yield attributing characters as they recorded high per se with positive significant GCA effects for seed yield per plant. Whereas, DA-12 (female) and DA-13 (male) recorded as good general combiners for protein content. Among 18 crosses evaluated, three crosses DA-11 x DA-15, DA-10 x DA-15 and DA-7 x DA- 14 exhibited high and positive significant SCA effects for seed yield per plant.

 

Effect of different levels of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, nodulation and yield of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek]

S.A.PARRY, P.C.JAISWAL, F.A.PARRY, M.M.MAGRAY AND S.A.GANIE

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Department of Soil Science, Sam Higginbottom institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Allahabad during kharif- 2010 in randomized complete block design with twelve treatment combinations consisting three levels of nitrogen (0, 20 and 40 kg N ha-1) and four levels of Sulphur (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S ha-1) replicated three times. Treatment combination N40 S60 (40kg N ha-1 +60 kg S ha-1) recorded significantly higher values for plant height (65.6cm), number of leaves plant-1 (32.4), fresh weight plant-1 (48.4 g) , dry weight plant-1 (16.5 g), number of nodules plant-1(44.5), number of pods plant-1(25.1), and grain yield ha- 1(14.8 q).

 

Crop nutrition and productivity of maize and cowpea intercropping system under different management practices

E. BARIK, B. BEHERA, S. N. JENA, P.K. ROUL AND M. R. SATAPATHY

ABSTRACT

Field experiment on “Crop nutrition and productivity of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) intercropping system under various planting patterns and nutrient management practices” was conducted during kharif season of 2012 at Bhubaneswar, Odisha. ‘Boom’ hybrid maize and ‘Utkal Manik’ cowpea were used as test crops. Three patterns of planting (P1: maize+ cowpea 1:1 in alternate rows, P2: maize+ cowpea 2:2 in alternate paired rows and P3: maize+ cowpea 1:1 within same rows and four practices of nutrient management (N1 : recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N2: RDF+FYM @ 5 t ha-1, N3: RDF+ lime @ 0.2 lime requirement or LR and N4: RDF+ FYM@ 5 t ha-1 + lime@ 0.2 LR) were tried in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Among planting patterns, maize + cowpea (2:2) system recorded the maximum N uptake of 130.61 kg ha-1, P uptake of 29.67 kg ha-1and K uptake of 178.65 kg ha-1. Among nutrient management practices, recommended dose of NPK+FYM+ lime @ 0.2 LR removed the maximum amount of nutrients i.e. 134.9 kg N, 31.94 kg P and 186.97 kg K ha-1. The nutrient management practice comprising recommended NPK+FYM+ lime in maize + cowpea (2:2) intercropping system gave the maximum maize grain yield of 7.40 t ha-1, fresh cowpea pod yield of 2.29 t ha-1 and system maize equivalent yield of 9.71 t ha1 under rainfed condition of East and South east-coastal plain agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

 

Effect of S, Zn, B and FYM on yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa) under rainfed ecosystem of coastal Odisha

M. P. BEHERA, J. SAHOO, B. BEHERA AND G. C. MISHRA

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during wet seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Instructional farm, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar on sandy loam well-drained medium land soil with medium availability of organic carbon (0.54%), available N (295 kg ha-1), P (15 kg ha-1), K (162 kg ha-1) and low availability of S (8 ppm), Zn (0.33 ppm) and B (0.43ppm).The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eleven treatments with three replications. The test variety ‘Lalat’ of 125 days duration was raised with different integrated nutrient management practices. Application of Recommended Fertilizer Dose(RFD) @ 80-40-40 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1+ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1+B @ 1 kg ha-1 recorded the highest values of yield attributes viz. number of panicles m-2, length of panicle, fertile grains panicle-1 and test weight resulting in the maximum grain and straw yield followed by application of RFD+Zn-EDTA @1kg ha-1+S @ 30 kg ha-1+B @1kg ha-1. Application of RFD+ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1and RFD+FYM@ 5 t ha-1 recorded significantly higher yield attributes and yield over application of RFD alone or combined application of RFD with S/B/ Zn-EDTA. Application of RFD+ZnSO4+B recorded higher gross return, net return and B : C ratio over other management practices. Incorporation of FYM with RFD proved its superiority over sole application of RFD or combined application of RFD with S/B/Zn-EDTA in term of yield and economic return Integration of ZnSO4 @ 25 Kg ha-1 with RFD proved its superiority over RFD+ FYM @ 5 t ha-1, due to the lower cost of commercial grade and more effectiveness in improving yield of rice.

 

Genetic variability studies in chench (Corchorus aestuans L.) genotypes collected from Chhattisgarh

VIVEK KUMAR KURREY, PRAVIN SHARMA AND AMIT DIXIT

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability for different yield contributing characters and important quality characters were studied in 25 genotypes of chench (Corchorus aestuans L.) during rabi 2014-15. The study indicated existence of considerable amount of genetic variability for all the characters studied. High magnitude of genotypic as well as phenotypic coefficient of variations were recorded for traits viz., dry weight of plant, fresh weight of plant, and leaf stem ratio. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for test weight, fibre content, plant height, duration of the crop, days to 50 % flowering, number of branches per plant, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. These characters are therefore worth consideration in the improvement of this crop.

 

Effect of zinc and manganese through foliar enrichment on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

MEHUL PARMAR, B. M. NANDRE AND YOGESH PAWAR

ABSTRACT

An investigation on effect of zinc and manganese through foliar enrichment on growth and yield of potato was laid out in Factorial Randomised Block Design with three replications during rabi 2012 at S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar. Total sixteen treatments were comprised of foliar application of Zn (0, 5, 10, 15 ppm) & Mn (0, 2, 4, 6 ppm). Results of present investigation revealed that significantly maximum plant height at 60 days after sowing (46.33 cm), plant height at 90 days after sowing (59.66 cm), early maturity (93.67 days) and yield attributes viz., highest number of tubers per plant (7.80), average weight of tubers (135.77 g), yield of tubers per plant (610. 43 g) and yield of tubers per hectare (417.61 q) were reported under the supplementation of Zn 15 ppm and Mn 6 ppm (Z3 M3).

 

Production potential of elephant foot yam under different levels of drip fertigation.

S. K. JATA, M. NEDUNCHEZHIYAN, S. K. MAITY AND MALLIKARJUN M

ABSTRACT

Elephant foot yam, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae), is gaining popularity as a commercial tuber crop. Effects of different levels of drip fertigation on elephant foot yam was experimented in relation to growth and yield parameters during the year 2013-14 at ICAR-Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. The results showed that early sprouting (47 days) and higher plant height (71.8 cm) at 120 days after planting (DAP), lower leaf orientation to pseudo stem (138.10), higher canopy spread (89.8 cm) at 120 DAP and higher corm yield (36.5 t ha-1) was observed with the fertigation level of 140:140 kg N and K2O ha-1 but fertigation levels 120:120 and 100:100 kg N K20 ha-1 were at par with the maximum values. Higher pseudo stem girth (21.7 cm) with at fertigation level of 120:120 kg N and K2O ha-1. Fertigation with 100:100 kg N and K2O ha-1 had recorded higher corm bulking efficiency (247.2%). Fertigation with 60:60 kg N and K2O ha-1 had recorded higher number of leaflets at 120 DAP (231), higher pseudo stem dry matter production at 120 DAP (30.6 g plant-1), higher corm dry matter production at 120 Dap (165.2g plant-1) and higher corm bulking rate (8.6 g day-1). Hence, the fertigation treatment 100:100 kg N and K2O ha-1 was better than higher levels of fertigation or soil application of recommended dose of fertilizer in case of elephant foot yam crop.

 

Detection of IPNV Sp VP2 genes in asymptomatic carrier Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by real time PCR

BASANTA KUMAR DAS, KAUSALYA KUMARI NAYAK AND BERTRAND COLLET

ABSTRACT

An infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) VP2 gene was detected in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by real time PCR. After Atlantic salmon, Atlantic cod is gaining importance in European countries. The cause of mortalities and infection in Atlantic cod was detected in the liver tissue by injection and cohabitation and it was noticed that 7/8 injected fish was found positive by real time PCR and 4/10 fish was found positive in cohabitation after 12 weeks of post challenge. This indicated qPCR is more sensitive and Atlantic cod is a carrier of IPNV virus for longer duration.

 

Occurrence of Nudibranch [Dendrodoris atromaculata (Alder and Hancock, 1864)] from the Pulicat lake along Bay of Bengal, India

S.N. SETHI, K. VINOD, RUDRA MURTHY, MAHADEV R KOKANE , GUNESWAR SETHI , P. PATTNAIK, AND B.K. DAS

ABSTRACT

One specimen of Dendrodoris atromaculata was collected from Pulicat Lake along Bay of Bengal at a depth range of about little more than 1 m (13°332 573 N 80°102 293 E) through a drag net operation in a traditional fishing craft. A literature review on the distribution of this species revealed that this is the first report of Dendrodoris atromaculata from Pulicat Lake along Bay of Bengal, India. A note on the morphological features of this specimen is detailed in this paper.

 

Incidence of respiratory infections in chicken in Odisha

JASMINE PAMIA, S. K. PANDA AND A. P. ACHARYA

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed toinvestigate the incidence of respiratory infections in chickens of different districts of Odisha. The carcasses showing respiratory lesions like air sacculitis, haemorrhagic tracheitis, tracheal congestion, pneumonic lungs and nodular lungs were included in the study to correlate with the respiratory infections.The overall mortality in the study period was around 11%. March showed the lowest mortality while in August it was highest. Most deaths occurred during the months of April to August due to hot and humid climate. The rainy season was more vulnerable to respiratory diseases. The morbidity and mortality was highest in 3 weekold chicks. Aspergillosis, colisepticaemia, chronic respiratory disease, IB, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and pneumonia were diagnosed.

 

Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis in Odisha

PRIYADARSHINI SAHOO, R.C. PATRA AND G.S. PARIDA

ABSTRACT

A total of 2166 quarters of 1736 crossbred Jersey lactating cows having a minimum yielding record of eight liters of milk per day at different calvings and stages of lactations in four milk-shed districts of Odisha i.e., Jagatsinghpur, Khordha, Cuttack and Puri were randomly screened during May 2014- June 2015 for presence of mastitis in general and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in particular. Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) followed by microbiological examination of milk sample was undertaken for confirmatory diagnosis of SCM. The overall prevalence rate of SCM in Odisha was 39.17 %. Presence of subclinical mastitis dominated over clinical mastitis in all the districts with a prevalence rate of 33.53% (582/1736) and 5.65% (98/1736), respectively. Prevalence of SCM in four districts of Odisha varied between 30.33 % (Puri) to 37.59 % (Jagatsinghpur). Presence of SCM was highest in the left hind quarter (30.71%) and least in the right fore quarter (19.35%). Cows in early stage of lactation (First 3 months of lactation) were more (50.69%) susceptible to SCM than the cows in mid (4 to 6 months of lactation) and late (7 to 9 months of lactation) lactation (31.10, 18.21%). Prevalence to SCM increased with advancement of lactation i.e., highest in 4th lactation or above (37.97%) and lowest in 1st lactation (10.14%).