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Important fungal diseases of rice and their integrated management

S. Lenka, A. K. Mukherjee, M. K. Yadav, M. K. Bag and M. Jena

 

 ABSTRACT

Rice is the most important staple food consumed by nearly half of the world population in Asian regions. It is found that the losses in rice crop production are caused due to insects, diseases, weeds and vertebrate pests. The serious affection is mostly due to different fungal diseases. It has been revealed that the most dreaded fungal diseases of rice are blast and sheath blight apart from others such as brown spot, sheath rot, false smut, leaf scald, stem rot, grain discoloration and udbatta. In recent years, the need to intensify rice production to feed a rapidly expanding population, we need to adopt the integrated management practices of the aforesaid diseases. The fungal diseases can be managed through the biological control agents, use of mechanical and chemical practices, selective fungicides, cultural practices and botanical products as safer alternatives to pesticides. This review paper gives an insight on occurrence and spread of the fungal diseases and the adoption of different measures towards their prevention and control to safeguard the growing demand of rice both in terms of production and productivity.

Key words: Fungal diseases, integrated disease management (IDM), bio-control agents, botanicals, rice production  

 

Conjunctive effect of graded levels of fly ash and recommended dose of fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake and quality of sunflower grown on Vertisol

B.S. Bhople,S.M. Bhoyar,S.P. Nandapure and P.W. Deshmukh  

 ABSTRACT

To study the effect of graded levels on yield, uptake of nutrients and quality of sunflower (var. EC 68415), a field investigation was conducted during 2005-06 with seven levels of fly ash (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 t ha-1) along with recommended dose of NPK (60:60:00) in Vertisol. The results revealed that application of 40 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1 of fly ash in combination with recommended dose of NPK (60:60:00) were at par with each other and significantly superior over RDF and rest of the treatments. Lower levels of fly ash application @ 60 t ha-1 increased in seed (6.54 q ha-1) and straw (12.51 q ha-1) yield as against 5.66 q ha-1 and 11.80 q ha-1 respectively in RDF. Results showed that significantly highest content, uptake of nutrients and quality of sunflower were recorded with the increasing level of fly ash up to 60 t ha-1.

Key words: Fly ash, sunflower yield, nutrient uptake, Vertisol

 

Bioaccumulation of neodymium oxide and its effects on the growth and physiological changes of wheat and rice seedlings: A hydroponics study under plant growth chamber

A.Basu,S.S.Kar,S.S.Panda and N.K.Dhal

ABSTRACT

A study of neodymium oxide (rare earth element) on the seed germination and the growth of wheat and rice seedlings was carried out in Hoagland half strength solution containing 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 25.0mg l-1 Nd2O3. A significant increase in germination and growth was observed with increased in concentration of the aforesaid rare earth element (REE). Accumulation of Nd in shoot and roots parts of the plant were analyzed using ICP-OES. The bioaccumulation of Nd in the seedlings was positively correlated with the concentrations of metals in the culture medium and was higher in roots as compared to shoots. The absorbed water and imbibition process of the rice and wheat seeds was increased during the soaking stage with Nd2O3, the plasma membrane permeability of the seeds was increased, O2 and H2O were easier to get into the cell and the respiratory rate was enhanced. The role of REEs in promoting germination and growth can act as stimulating agents. Advanced research should be initiated regarding the effects of REEs on yields of agricultural crops.

Key words: Hydroponics study, neodymium oxide, rare earth elements, phytoremediation

 

Residual effect of S, Zn, B and FYM on yield and economics of summer rice (Oryza sativa)

M. P. Behera, J. Sahoo, B. Behera and T. K. Das  

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in lateritic soil of Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Bhubaneswar, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) during summer season of 2011-12 to find out the residual effect of nutrient management practices on rice cv. ‘Lalat’. The soil was sandy loam in texture with acidic pH (5.8), medium in available N, P and K content and deficient in available S, Zn and B. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and eleven treatments. During summer season, recommended fertilizer dose (RFD) @ 80- 40-40 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 was given uniformly to all treatments where as S, Zn, B and farm yard manure (FYM) were applied with RFD in wet season. Their residual effect on yield and economics was studied in rice during summer season. Residual effect of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + B @ 1 kg ha-1 produced the longest (28.1cm) panicle, maximum number of panicles m-2 (331), more fertile grains panicle-1 (166) and the highest test weight (24.58 g). The same treatment recorded maximum grain yield (6.21 t ha-1) and straw yield (7.45 t ha-1) followed by residual effect of Zn-EDTA + S + B giving the second highest values of yield attributes and yield. Further, residual effect of ZnSO4 + B recorded the highest gross return (Rs 74231 ha-1), net return (Rs 47,231 ha-1) and B-C ratio (1.75) followed by residual effect of Zn-EDTA + S+B. Residual effect of ZnSO4 and FYM remained at par in terms of yield, gross return, net return and B-C ratio, indicating application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 could be preferred over application of FYM @ 5 t ha-1.

Key words: Sulphur, zinc, boron, farm yard manure, economics, rice

 

Wild edible fruits traditionally used by tribes of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

H.K.Sahoo, R. C. Misra and A.K.Mukherjee

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha to assess the diversity and consumption pattern of wild edible fruit plants sustained by local tribal inhabitants. The study was based on extensive botanical survey, interview with traditional knowledge holders and documented information on indigenous traditional knowledge of major tribes of selected 30 villages of Similipal Biosphere Reserve. Altogether species diversity of 92 wild edible fruit plants belonging to 41 families and 67 genera were documented along with their local name, mode of consumption and income generating species maintained by the local tribes.

Key words: Wild edible fruits, species diversity, consumption pattern, Similipal Biosphere Reserve

 

Dietary incorporation of Allium sativum on liver enzymatic activity of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) fingerlings

Swagatika Sahu, Jyotirmayee Pradhan, Kausalya K. Nayak, Anil Kumar Swain and Basanta Kumar Das

ABSTRACT

Labeo rohita (Rohu) is the most popular species cultivated in Indian sub-continent because it is highly delicious and most preferable carp among other Indian carps. Present study was carried out at wet lab of Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-CIFA, Bhubaneswar. After 30 days acclimatizing, Labeo rohita fingerlings (10±2 g) were fed on diets supplemented with Allium sativum powder in duplicate containing 30 fishes at the rate of 0, 1, 5 and 10 g kg-1 for a period of 60 days. Serum samples were collected at 20 days interval and assayed for enzymatic parameters viz., serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine amino-transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After 60 days feeding, fishes were challenged with a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-challenge. Serum AST and ALT activities were significantly (p≤0.05) different in all the treated groups of fish on day 20 and on day 10 bacterial post-challenge as compared to control. The highest survival on 10th day post-challenge (85%) was recorded in group fed with 0.1% and 0.5% garlic supplemented diets. The intake of A. sativum at different dosages altered the AST, ALT and ALP activity, but the variation was within the normal ranges that did not hamper the growth of fish. The study indicated that dietary supplementation of A. sativum did not negatively affect liver function and was found to have growth promoting activity in rohu.

  Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Allium sativum, Labeo rohita, liver enzymatic parameters

 

Composition of natural foods of long whiskers catfish, Mystus gulio (Hamilton, 1822) from Chilika lake

S. K. Karna, D. Mohapatro, B. C. Guru and S. Panda

ABSTRACT

Study was undertaken to analyze the natural food composition of Mystus gulio, a catfish having high commercial value in Chilika lake. In total 359 fresh fish specimens were collected during March to December, 2012 from different regions of the lake. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of stomach contents of the collected specimens were done by percentage of frequency occurrence method. The obtained results exhibited that M. gulio feeds on variety of food items such as amphipods (44.11%), copepods (11.88%), insects (9.24%), aquatic plants (7.96%), prawns (4.38%), fish (4.38%), diatoms (1.49%), mysis (1.38%), cladocerans (1.16%), rotifers (0.65%), isopods (0.63%) and gastropods (0.39%). Among these, amphipods were appeared as one of the most dominant group, commonly observed in the macrophyte dominated areas. Most of these groups are well recognized as the macro-zoobenthic groups. The present study indicated that the species preferred mostly on animal food attached on the plant materials. So, the fish might be categorized as omnivore species having mixed food of both animal and plant origin.

Key words: Mystus gulio, natural food, Chilika lake, India

 

Selenium yeast: An organic source of selenium for animals

Kamdev Sethy, N.Sahoo, S .S. Padhi and S. Khadanga

ABSTRACT

Selenium is physiologically essential for animals and human beings and may also offer a protective effect against several diseases. The organic form of selenium provided by selenium yeast has been shown to differ in bioavailability and metabolism compared with inorganic (selenate and selenite) forms of dietary selenium. Selenium yeast, produced by fermented Saccharomyces cerevisiae in selenium enriched media, is a recognized source of organic form of selenium. Dietary supplementation using selenium yeast has been associated with increased ability to counteract oxidative stress and enhanced immune status, growth and reproduction of animals. The consequent improvements in productivity can be of economic benefit to livestock producers for many reasons, including greater overall efficiency of feedstuff use. Selenium yeast supplementation in animal diets has an added nutritional benefit to human consumers. Dietary supplementation of selenium yeast enhanced the selenium content in meat, milk and egg, consequently producing selenium-rich functional foods like selenium enriched eggs and meats for human consumption.

Key words: Animals, functional food, selenium yeast.

 

Seroprevalence of Bluetongue among goat population of Odisha

Abhishek Hota, Niranjana Sahoo, Sangram Biswal and Manoranjan Rout

ABSTRACT

Serum-analysis was performed during October 2015 to April 2016 to ascertain prevalence of Bluetongue (BT) virus infection among goat population in Odisha. Samples were collected randomly from apparently healthy goats of all the 30 districts of Odisha encompassing 10 different agro-climatic zones. Anti-BT antibodies were screened in sera using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) at Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar. Out of 289 samples screened, 53.63% samples were found positive for Bluetongue virus infection. The prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different agro-climatic zones ranged between 25.0 to 66.0 per cent. None of the samples collected from Boudh district were found positive to BT. Contrary, all the samples of Jagatsinghpur districts were found to be positive. This seroprevalence picture of Bluetongue, first of its kind, unfolds this viral infection in Odisha.

Key words: Seroprevalence, Bluetongue, i-ELISA, goat, Odisha

 

Isolation characterization and antibiogram study of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle in Odisha, India

R. Sahoo, H.K. Panda, L. Sahoo, N.P. Satapathy and M. Samant

ABSTRACT

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), caused by the gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2, is an economically important disease responsible for high mortality and morbidity of bovines in countries of south or south-east Asia and Africa. The present study was undertaken in 178 cattle suspected of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Odisha resulting in 6 numbers of Pasteurella multocida isolates. These isolates were identified through standard procedures like morphological, cultural, biochemical and serological tests.The biochemical and molecular characterization were conducted to confirm the presence of the specific organism causing H.S. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by PM-PCR, HSB-PCR. In capsular typing, all the isolates were found to be capsular, type B; thus confirming them to be Haemorrhagic Septicaemia cases. The antibiogram study of the Pasteurella multocida isolates was carried out through in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test in which cephalosporins, quinolone compounds and chloramphenicol occupied the first position followed by aminopenicillins, amynoglycosides and oxytetracycline. Streptomycin and furazolidone were found to be resistant against Pasteurella multocida.

Keywords: Pasteurella multocida, antibiogram, cattle, molecular characterization

 

Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Hansli chicken of Odisha

Dayanidhi Behera, C. R. Pradhan, N.C. Behura, L.M. Mohapatra, G.P.Mohanty and K.Sethy

ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken to investigate the phenotypic characteristics and morphometry of Hansli chicken of Odisha, India. Total 350 adult male (160) and female (190) birds were taken for evaluation of qualitative traits and morphometry (i.e. shank height, length, width and circumference, keel length, breast angle, body girth, head width, body, back, neck, thigh and beak length) at 8th week, 12th week, 16th week and 20th weeks of age. The predominant plumage colour was black/red (49.3%) followed by black/golden yellow (31.25%) in male but the predominant plumage colour in female was black (80%). The plumage pattern was solid in both male and female birds. The predominant feather colour of neck/hackles was golden yellow (45.6%) in males and black colour (73.15%) in females. Sickle feather colours were mostly black in both males (78.12%) and females (78.4%). The predominant saddle feather colours were mostly golden yellow in males (43.12%) and black colour (76.8%) in females. All the morphological measurements were highly significant in male compared to female at 16th week, 20th week as well as in adult birds but only few morphological measurements were significant at 8th week and 12th week. The average shank length and shank circumference were 15.15±0.12 and 6.77±0.05 cm, and 12.07±0.07 and 5.33±0.02 cm in adult male and female birds respectively. The average keel length and thigh length were 15.13±0.11 and 24.26±0.02 cm and 12.59±0.06 and 19.49±0.21 cm in adult male and female birds respectively. The average body length and body weight were 57.98±0.43 cm and 3723.1±69.72 g, in and 47.62±0.17cm and 2512.94±35.8 g in adult male and female Hansli birds respectively. From this study, it may be concluded that the Hansli birds have distinct qualitative and quantitative traits and would be further useful for conservation of this valuable genetic resource in future.

Key words: Characterization, Hansli chicken, morphometry, phenotype, traits

 

Butterfly diversity in Fakir Mohan University Campus, Balasore, Odisha, India

Biswajeet Panda, Bhaskar Behera and Siba Prasad Parida

ABSTRACT

Butterflies are one of the most predictable bio-indicator organisms. During the one year of survey in Fakir Mohan University campus, a total number of 53 species of butterflies were identified belonging to five different families. Maximum numbers of species were from the family Nymphalidae and followed by Pieridae. The abundance of butterfly species was observed to be maximum when the temperature was near the range of 28±2◦ C. The variation in species richness was correlated with the climatic conditions as well as to the host plant interaction. The present study aims at the conservation of the butterflies and development of appropriate management strategies.

Keywords: Butterflies, predictable, bio-indicator, nymphalidae, pieridae, conservation