Consequences of metabolic scaling and log-scale allometry on means, variances and parameters from type I and type II linear regression models
M.S. Dhanoa, R. Sanderson,S. Lopez, E. Kebreab and J. France
The slope bias when the predictor variable suffers from measurement errors is investigated. The presence of measurement errors can undermine the least squares linear regression parameter estimates, which in turn will have consequences if slope-based meaningful functions are calculated and used. Methods to determine suitable regression model choice are outlined. Also, the consequences of data size shrinkage due to scaling by metabolic weight in energy balance studies are illustrated. A problem arises when the assumed value of the metabolic index (b) changes. In the literature, this index varies from 0.62 to 0.75 for calculation of metabolic weight (MW) from live weight (LW) i.e. MW=LWb. The estimates of regression parameters vary according to the assumed value of the metabolic index b and that will impact further on intercept and slope based calculations. Similar problems occur when allometry functions are linearized using logarithmic transformation. Disproportional shrinkage of data size introduces scale bias which can introduce inaccuracies in further use of the regression parameters. Both of these issues have potential difficulties when using databases where data size is unevenly distributed.
Subhashree Pattnayak, S.C. Sahu,M. Kumar and N.K. Dhal
Terrestrial biosphere comprising of mainly forests, the major source of carbon absorption and the stock estimation methods are initiating to mitigate the threats concerned with climate change. In order to increase the global carbon stock United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has introduced Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme. Thus, several standard procedures applicable to the forestry and agroforestry land use systems have been developed. They introduced the set of methodologies for measuring, monitoring and estimating carbon stock in several forests of the world. Forest Survey of India (FSI) is the foremost contributor to measure forest biomass and carbon stock in India with the joint association of UNFCCC since 2004. This review cited the process of total carbon stock in different forests including organic carbon estimation in above ground biomass, below ground biomass, soil as well as litter biomass through remote sensing method, destructive method, non-destructive methods, ground based inventory data for consistent, precise, pertinent estimation of carbon stock. This review covers various scientific approaches for estimating carbon stock in forests.
P. K. Swain, S. K. Mohanty and P. Padhi
Nanotechnology was first described by physicist Richard P Feynman, who viewed it as an unavoidable development in the progress of science, and has since been part of mainstream scientific theory with potential medical and dental applications since the early 1990s. Nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, dendrimers and other nanostructures have been studied for various applications in different biological spheres. Nanotechnology’s most tangible contribution to dentistry to date has been the restoration of tooth structure with nano composites. Nanocomposites are characterized by filler-particle sizes of < 100 nm, which offer these materials’ aesthetic and strength advantages over conventional micro filled and hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) systems. They offer advantages primarily in terms of the smoothness, polishability and precision of shade characterization, not withstanding the flexural strength and micro hardness they offer similar to those of the betterperforming posterior RBCs. The strength and aesthetic properties of the resin based nanocomposite make it possible for it to be used for both anterior and posterior restorations. This article aims at to address the current major uses of practical nanotechnology in dentistry, mainly the restoration of tooth structure with RBCs that make use of nanoparticles.
B. Tripathy, S. R. Behera,P. S. Rajasekhar and A. K. Mishra
Coastal sand dunes are susceptible and fragile ecosystems with an array of floral and faunal species composition. Studies on coastal sand dunes especially those of eco-sensitive coastal and marine ecosystem of Indian coast are scanty. Hence, a detailed survey along the coast of Rushikulya sea turtle Arribada beach in Ganjam district, Odisha was carried out. A total of 37 species belonging to 32 genera and 17 families of plants and 15 species belonging to 11 genera and 09 families of faunaal elements were encountered on the beach and identified at different locations from the shoreline towards inland of the coastline. The flora and fauna composition of Rushikulya coast was found to be rich, indicates to constitute a variety of habitats and gather vital ecological and economic importance. Such sensitive eco-systems have to be protected from habitat degradation in order to protect their diversity and ecological functioning and to supporter the associated floral and faunal assemblages in the area.
Study of ecology of leopard (Panthera pardus) in Lakhari valley wildlife sanctuary, Gajapati district, Odisha, India
U. K. Das,R. K. Samantaray and R. K. Singh
Monitoring tiger, co-predator and their habitat in tiger reserves and sanctuaries is not only a protocol but also an intensive survey methodologies to analyze the wildlife status; mostly predator animals with relation to the prey base of the forested landscape. The tigers and leopards are wide ranging large carnivores covering a large landscape which may include forests of different administrative boundaries within or outside the state of Odisha. A survey was undertaken from November 2015 to February 2016 in Lakhari valley wildlife sanctuary through camera trap and rigorous field surveys on foot inside the sanctuary and also the periphery forest area to track the movement and study the ecology of leopards. From camera trap study, 2 numbers of leopards were captured which confirmed the presence of leopards, but no traps of Royal Bengal Tigers noticed. The result through camera trap and field surveys through pug marks, scat etc. showed that the population density D was 6 ± 2 leopards in 300 square km area. The individual leopards were differentiated according to the size of the pugmark. In a sampling area of 30 sq km under camera trap surveillance for other prey species have also been recorded.
Human-elephant conflict due to interstate movement of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from West Bengal to Odisha, India
N. C. Palei,S. S. Srivastava and L. A. K. Singh
Interstate movement of elephants from Odisha to neighboring states or vice versa was known earlier, but it was not a major concern at that time for the state as vast forest areas were available for their regular movement and bordering states i.e. Jharkhand and West Bengal. Fragmentation and degradation of elephant habitat along with developmental projects such as Subarnarekha canal project, electric power lines, road ways, railways, industries, expansion of agricultural fields, increase of anthropogenic pressure on habitat, etc. have posed wide spread and significant threat to elephants corridors and their habitats. A study was conducted during July 2010 to July 2014 in Baripada and Balasore Wildlife Division, Odisha, India. The present study took an effort to understand the migration pattern, herd behaviour, crop damage, house damage, human death, human injuries and present mitigation pattern for the period 1997-98 to 2013-14 and to formulate a comprehensive planning for conflict management and mitigation. Elephants killed or injured 31 people over the 17 years in villages of Baripada and Balasore Wildlife Division. During this period 1155 nos. house damaged, 757 nos. houses partly damaged, 398 nos. houses fully damaged, 3832.42 acres of crop damaged and 579 nos. of villages affected and 2539 nos. families affected. During 1997 to 2014 showed a higher frequency of human elephant interface in comparison to previous years. Some recommendations are put forth based on the present study to mitigate the human elephant conflict to certain extent.
Effect of moisture conservation practices on productivity and economics of finger millet and pigeon pea intercropping system in the dry zone of Eastern Karnataka
Malla Reddy, M. N. Thimmegowda,B. K. Ramachandrappa and Narayan Hebbal
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2013 to study the effect of moisture conservation practices on productivity and economics of finger millet + pigeon pea intercropping system under dry land situations at AICRP on Dryland Agriculture field unit, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore. The experiment consisted of multiple treatments such as mulching with maize residues, repeated inter-cultivation, green leaf manuring, tank silt application and their combination with a control replicated thrice in RCBD. Growth and yield attributes in both finger millet and pigeonpea was superior with green leaf manure + maize residue mulch as compared to control. Higher gross and net returns were observed in green leaf manure + maize residue mulch (Rs. 95026 ha-1 and Rs. 70118 ha-1, respectively). Equivalent higher yield of finger millet yield was recorded in the same treatment compared to the control.
Evaluation of performance of maize (Zea mays L.) varieties under varying planting geometry under Kandahar situations in Afghanistan
M. Q. Mangal, U. Behera, N. U. Majididi, S. L. Meena and C. Varghese
A field experiment was conducted during spring season, 2015 at Tarnak Research Farm of Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan with semi-arid climate to evaluate the performance of maize varieties under varying planting geometry. The experiment was conducted in Randomize Complete Block Design and replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction having pH of 8.30 and organic matter 0.18, with a cation-exchange capacity of 80.58 meq/100g and electrical conductivity of 0.210 dSm-1 .The initial N (0.06 %) content of soil was low having P content of 1.23 mg kg-1 and K content of 1,089 mg kg-1. The treatment details include: two maize hybrids – CS-200 and AB-01 and four planting geometry [P1 (75 × 33.3cm) with plant population of 40,000 plants ha-1, P2 (75 × 22.2cm) with plant population of 60,000 plants ha-1, P3 (75 × 16.7cm) with plant population of 80,000 plants ha-1 and P4 (75 × 13.3cm) with plant population of 100,000 plants/ha]. Results revealed that maize hybrid AB-01 recorded significantly greater performance in terms of growth attributes, viz, leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation, compared to hybrid CS-200. While maize hybrid CS-200 performed significantly superior in terms of grain yield (6.41 t ha-1) and harvest index (37.6%) compared to AB-01 (5.81 t ha-1 and 33.4%, respectively). Both of maize hybrids (CS-200 and AB-01) did not differ significantly with respect to gross return, net return. B: C ratio, energy output and energy use efficiency due to their significant variation in producing grain and stover yields. Among the varying planting geometry, the narrow planting geometry showed significantly greater LAI and dry matter accumulation, cost of production and input energy. While the wider planting geometry recorded significantly better performance for all yields attributes. Planting geometry P2 recorded significantly greater performance in terms of growth and yields attributes. Therefore, hybrid CS-200 and planting geometry P2 is recommended for obtaining higher yield of maize, which can assure a net income of 221,371Afn ha-1 to the farmers of Kandahar region.
Performance of local and improved wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties under agro-ecological conditions of Kandahar, Afghanistan
N. A. Taliman,U. Behera,R. Singh and C. Varghese
Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of Afghanistan by contributing 28% to the total GDP and providing nearly 60% of total employment in the country. Wheat is the primary staple food crop, covering 77.5% of total area occupied by cereal crops in the country. Total annual production of wheat in Afghanistan was 5.37 million tonnes during 2014-15 with about 80% country’s total cereal production, which is about 30-40% less than the demand and country is dependent on the import of wheat. Afghanistan has the potentiality not only to become self-sufficient but also to be an exporter of wheat. The present wheat productivity (2.02 t ha-1) can be increased substantially by increasing the area under high yielding varieties. In view of above, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Afghanistan National Agriculture Science and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar during (Rabi) season of 2014-2015. Four wheat varieties including local (Sour Khusha and Morai) and improved varieties (PBW-154 and Shisham Bagh-08) were planted to evaluate their performance for yield, economics, and energy and water use efficiency under Kandahar conditions. Significantly maximum days (154) to maturity were taken by both the local varieties compared to improved varieties (136 days). Of the 4 varieties, Sour Khusha recorded highest growth and yield attributing parameters except grains/spike, which was highest with variety PBW 154. Use of variety PBW 154 resulted significantly more grain yield (3.55 t ha-1) and harvest index (39.55%) followed by Sour Khusha. There was an increase of 19.12 and 29.09 % in grain yield with PBW 154 over Shisham Bagh-08 and morai varieties, respectively. The variety PBW-154 also recorded highest net return (96867.03 AFN ha-1), B:C ratio (1.52), water use efficiency (10.14 kg ha-1 mm-1) and production efficiency 26.18 kg ha-1) and being at par with Sour Khush, found significantly superior over shisham Bagh-08 and Morai. Thus, the results indicated that variety PBW- 154 and Sour Khusha are suitable for improving average productivity, monetary benefit and water use efficiency in Kandahar condition of Afghanistan.
Monika Ray and Hrusikesh Patro
Knowledge about the amount of rainfall and its distribution and the occurrence of drought during its growth period are the prerequisite to adopt any cropping system at a particular region especially for rain fed crops. Therefore, a study was carried out to learn about the drought pattern and its impact on rice mono-cropping system in Keonjhar district of Odisha. The rainfall analysis was done based on the last 15 years (2001-2015) daily rainfall data to study monthly, seasonal and yearly drought of Keonjhar district based on the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) protocols. The average annual rainfall of Keonjhar is 1064 mm with 59 numbers of rainy days. During the fifteen years period, no extreme and moderate drought years were experienced, but there were 4 mild (2001, 2003, 2005 and 2010) and 5 moderate (2002, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2009) drought years. The frequency of drought month recorded for the January, February, March, November and December was 10, 7, 10, 9 and 11, respectively out of 15 years of record. This study revealed that the farmers of this region may depend on monsoon for growing rain-fed rice, as there was hardly any drought occurrence during the monsoon season. However, there is fair chance of occurrence of moderate drought during November to March due to scanty post-monsoon rainfall, hence growing of winter rice may needs assured irrigation.
K. Sethy, R. S. Das,S. S. Parhi, N. Sahoo,P. R. Sahoo, S. K. Gupta, and S. Khadanga
To assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation on meat quality, fifteen male non- descriptive local kids (6.41 ± 0.37 kg BW and 2 to 3 months old) were divided into three groups and were fed on oat straw and concentrate mixture. Kids were supplemented with 0,100 and 200 IU vitamin E (á-tocopherol acetate) in group I II and III, respectively. Feeding continued for 6 months. Immediately after sacrificing the animals, carcass samples were collected to study the meat quality. Chemical composition of muscle sample of carcass showed non-significant differences between the groups for moisture, crude protein, total ash and ether extract. pH and sensory characteristics like appearance, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability did not differ among all the groups. However, shear force values and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased from group I to III. Lovibond tintometer color units for red and tenderness value showed increased trend in all the supplemented groups. It may be concluded that supplementation of 100 IU and 200 IU of vitamin E/animal/day increased the redness and tenderness of meat and reduced the shear force value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in meat.
In-vitro evaluation of acaricidal property of Cymbopogon citratus, Nicotiana tabacum and deltamethrin against Rhipicephalus sp. ticks
Tanushree Moharana, A.K. Mohanty and Niranjana Sahoo
In vitro acaricidal property of lemon grass oil, tobacco leaves along with deltamethrin was evaluated on cattle ticks using emulsion test. The ticks collected from rural and urban areas of Odisha were identified as i.e., Rhipicephalus sp. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus commonly known as lemon grass oil and deltamethrin, a commercially available acaricidal agent, at 0.3 % concentration showed efficacy of 97.77 and 97.77 % in urban ticks and 92.2 and 100 % in rural ticks with a contact period of 24 hours, respectively. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves exhibited visibly poor action. Though deltamethrin and lemon grass oil found equipotent, the former need to be used properly for its toxic property.