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R. serpentina (Sarpagandha): An overview

Bonti Gogoi and Savita Bhoutekar


Rauvolfia serpentina or the Serpentina plant is a climbing or twining herb or shrub, belonging to the natural order Apocynaceae, very well known for its immense therapeutic use in the pharmaceutical world. R. serpentina is found to be the most consistently successful and effective drug in curing violent maniacal disorders associated with psychosis, schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia and epilepsy. The pharmacologic actions of R. serpentina is due to the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phlobatannins, phenols, resins, saponins, sterols, tannins and terpenes. The root extracts are mostly used for its various medicinal properties. It also helps in the treatment of intestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea and dysentery and also as anthelmintic. The present review focuses mainly on chemical composition and importance of Rauvolfia alkaloids.

Keywords: Therapeutic uses, R. serpentina, alkaloids, ethnobotany, chemical composition

Canned foods: Their preservation methods and public health implications

D.P. Das, S.K. Behera,S. Mohapatra and S.K. Behera


Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of food are lost due to spoilage even with modern day preservation techniques. Canning is a method where food can be prevented from spoilage by storing it in a container that are hermetically sealed and then sterilize by heat which destroys most, if not all the microorganisms. However, heated canned foods may undergo spoilage either due to chemical or biological spoilage. Most common types of spoilage encountered in canned foods are flat sour, Thermophilic Anaerobes (T.A.) spoilage, stinker spoilage and hydrogen swells. Food spoilage bacteria are classified according to their oxygen requirement as obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe and obligate anaerobe, non spore forming bacteria, yeast, mold etc. In addition to this canned food can be source of deadly bisophenol poisoning and histamine poisoning. Canned foods can be prevented from spoilage as long as they are remain intact and preserved in best possible way in cool and dry environment

Key words: Canned food, food spoilage, thermophilic anaerobes

Effect of climatic variables on fireincidence and burnt area in tropical forests in Nepal

Krishna Bahadur Bhujel,Rejina Maskey, A.P. Gautam and Ram Asheshwar Mandal


This research was objectively done to correlate the climatic variables with the number of wildfire incidence and burnt area in Nawalparasi, Nepal. MODIS satellite data was used to detect the fire incidence and burnt areas. Climatic (temperature and humidity) data for 2000-2014 periods were obtained from Government of Nepal. The burnt areas of each year were clipped using Arc GIS to calculate the fire affected areas and number of incidences. Meanwhile, the correlation was evaluated to determine the relationship of climatic variables with the fire incidence and burnt area. The analysis showed that temperature and humidity of the study area varied throughout the active fire season (March to May). R2 values were 0.0123 and 0.0260 of temperature with number of fire occurrence and brunt area respectively. R2 was same nearly 0.0288 of the correlation of humidity with fire incidence and burnt area. The regression models were tested applying t-test (p ≤ 0.05) for humidity with fire incidence and burnt area. The results showed that there was a clear relationship between wildfire and climatic factors, especially the humidity. The findings can be useful to establish baseline information for forest fire management in Nepal and other developing countries with similar ecological contexts.

Key words: Burnt area, climatic variables, fire occurrence, MODIS

Use of the Mitscherlich equation for estimating maintenance requirement for amino acids and their efficiency of utilization for accretion in growing swine


Darmani Kuhi et al. (2001) developed a Mitscherlich equation to estimate energy and amino acid (AA) requirements by growing broilers for maintenance, gain and protein (or AA) accretion. In the study presented herein, the scope of the model was extended to growing swine to provide an estimate of their AA requirements for maintenance and growth using the results of four studies taken from literature. The equation was fitted by non-linear regression procedures to estimate parameters, from which other biological indicators were calculated. A number of criteria were used to evaluate general goodness of fit of the model, including model behaviour, biologically meaningful parameter estimates and statistical performance. The model estimated the maintenance requirements for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine to be in the range 37-74, 11-40 and 17-63 mg kg-1 of LW d-1, respectively, depending on the data source and the live-weights (LW) of pigs (age). The values determined for average lysine requirement for body protein accretion varied from 6.5-7.3 g 100g-1 of protein accretion. For sulphur amino acids and threonine, the determined values were 3.95 and 4.35 g 100g-1 of protein accretion, respectively. The estimated maintenance requirements and the determined values of AA requirements for protein accretion were in good agreement with values reported previously by other researchers. Average efficiency of recovering AA in body weight and body protein was greatest at low intakes of AA and decreased as intakes increased.

Key words: Amino acids, law of diminishing returns, Mitscherlich equation, swine, maintenance and growth requirements

Clinico-pathological and haemato biochemical alterations in Canine Ehrlichiosis

Subhalaxmi Sahoo, Niranjana Sahoo, Rashmi Ranjan Swain and Bikash Kumar Behera


Ehrlichiosis, a vector-borne disease of dogs, has gained importance worldwide because of its growing prevalence and zoonotic importance. An investigation was conducted in the Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to record the clinical, haematological, biochemical and ultrasonographic alterations in 35 dogs with canine ehrlichiosis that was confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) producing amplicon at 843 bp. The predominant clinical signs were pyrexia, weight loss, epistaxis, conjunctivitis, vomition and pale mucous membrane. Other clinical signs were weakness, limping and lymphadenomegaly. Majority of the affected dogs (32/35) had tick infestation. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia were two important pathognomonic haematological alterations noticed. Ultrasonography revealed hepatomegaly, gall bladder distention, splenomegally and ascites, in descending order of intensity. Elevated level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea and creatinine were considered specific biochemical alterations in ehrlichiosis.

Subhalaxmi Sahoo, Niranjana Sahoo, Rashmi Ranjan Swain and Bikash Kumar Behera

Variation, correlation and pathcoefficient study on morphometric traits and yield attributes of some groundnut breeding lines

Sushree Sibani Sardar and Bibhu Santosh Behera


Thirty two F6 progenies along with 4 released varieties as parents were evaluated in R.B.D for yield and its component traits grown in rabi season showed a wide range of variation in all the 10 morphometric traits including yield. The genotypic source of variations was highly significant (at 1% level) for all the traits. The P.C.V. and G.C.V. estimates were high for haulm yield per plant and low for harvest index and shelling percent. The rest of the characters exhibited medium PCV and GCV. However, low values of G.C.V. were observed in shelling percentage and harvest index indicated that they are controlled largely by non-additive gene action; hence, selection would be less effective. So, there is need to create variability either by hybridization or mutation followed by selection. High heritability and high genetic advance indicated that these traits are mainly governed by additive gene action. Hence, improvement of these traits would be more effective through the phenotypic selection. Moderate heritability and genetic advance (GAM) as per cent of mean for plant height, pod number per plant, kernel number per plant, kernel yield and pod yield indicated the additive and non-additive gene actions for these traits and phenotypic selection would be effective to some extent. Kernel yield per plant had the highest direct positive effects on pod yield per plant followed by the number of kernels per plant and 100 kernel weight. All other characters through these three characters made major indirect contribution towards pod yield. Plant height, number of branches per plant and number of pods per plant exhibited greater influence on pod yield per plant via kernel number per plant and kernel yield per plant. Haulm yield and harvest index influenced indirectly on pod yield through kernel weight and kernel number respectively. The present study thus indicated that kernel yield per plant, number of kernels per plant, hundred kernel weight followed by plant height and number of branches per plant were identified as the most important yield components and due emphasis should be placed on these characters while selecting for high yielding genotypes in Spanish bunch groundnut. But OGZ5 and OGZ6 recorded highest pod and kernel yield per plant with haulm yield although exhibited moderate chlorophyll and protein values, due to the balance in the physiological parameters contributing towards yield. Chlorophyll, protein and yield were not related in the same magnitude and direction in all the crosses. OGZ5 and OGZ6 may be identified as promising line for high protein content (25%) and (31%) with moderate chlorophyll and higher yield. Out of 36 genotypes evaluated, the genotypes like OGZ5, OGZ2, R 2001-3A, OGZ6 and OGX4 were sorted out to be promising in respect of high yield. The higher productivity in these promising lines is due to a combination of various morpho- physiological traits and which could be ascribed as the basis of potential productivity in groundnut. High yield of different promising entries could be attributed to taller plant height, moderate to high number of branches /plants and number of pods per plant and moderately high 100 kernel weight, may serve as the basis of yield vigour which could be utilized as important selection criteria for prediction and realization of high yield in groundnut.

Keywords: Groundnut, genetic variability, heritability, correlation, morphometric traits

Influence of mulch on depletion pattern of in situ soil moisture in Rajma crop system of Meghalaya

Y. Marwein, Lala I.P. Ray and J.K. Dey


In situ soil moisture is one of the constraints in crops production during the winter season when there is hardly any source of irrigation under a hilly terrain. A field trial was taken up to assess the in situ soil moisture depletion under two organic mulching materials, viz. maize stover and weed mulch. The performance of Rajma crop was studied under the influence of the organic mulch in the mid hill of Meghalaya. The percentage of emergence (79.75%) was found higher for weed mulch followed by maize stover mulch and un-mulch treatment. The soil moisture content and soil moisture stress were found to be within the acceptable range for weed mulch plot at two different monitored soil depths viz., 0-15 cm,16-30 cm. The depletion pattern of soil moisture was found rapid under un-mulch treatment (control) over organic mulch treatments. Within the organic mulch treatment, rapid depletion pattern was recorded for weed mulch over maize stover mulch. The economic yield and benefit cost ratio (BCR) recorded for Rajma cultivar “selection-9” was 2.52 t ha-1 and 1.45, respectively under weed mulching.

Key words: Organic mulch, Rajma, moisture depletion pattern, soil depth

Ergonomic evaluation of manual sunflower threshing bench on farm women of Subarnapur and Mayurbhanj districts of Odisha

J. Bhuyan, D.K. Mohanty and S. Mohapatra


Sunflower threshing is one of the tedious job and done by female workers. Manual method of sunflower threshing by hand is fatigue, consumes time and its output is also very low. Different manual sunflower threshers have been developed by different research centres as pedal operated, hand operated wire mesh type and perforated GI sheet type thresher. Keeping this in view KVK, Sonepur and Mayurbhanj-1 have undertaken FLD on sunflower threshing for threshing sunflower for drudgery reduction of farm women and compared its performance with traditional method of threshing by hand. Ten female subjects were selected from each district in the age group 25-45years. The mean value of working heart rate was observed to be 110 and 109 beats/min in wire mesh type threshing bench, whereas 112 and 115 beats/ min was in traditional method of threshing in Subarnapur and Mayurbhanj district respectively. The output was observed to be maximum 7.71 and 11kg hr-1 in wire mesh type threshing bench whereas 1.37 and 2.8 kg hr-1 in traditional method of sunflower threshing for both the districts of Subarnapur and Mayurbhanj district. The energy expenditure in threshing by wire mesh type threshing bench and traditional method was 8.77, 8.61 kJ min-1 and 9.08, 9.56 kJ min-1 respectively in two districts. Cardiac cost of work was low in wire mesh type threshing bench than that of traditional method of threshing. Hence from drudgery aspect and output point of view wire mesh type sunflower threshing bench is better than that of traditional method of threshing of sunflower.

Keywords: Sunflower thresher, energy expenditure, output, cardiac cost, threshing efficiency

Economic utilization of water for Labeo rohita Hamilton seed production in a portable FRP carp hatchery

B.B. Mohanty, B.C. Mal, K.K. Sharma and B.C. Mohapatra


An experiment was conducted to quantify the volume of water required for spawning and hatching operation of Rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton) in a portable Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) carp hatchery at Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Bhubaneswar. Minimum water requirements for breeding and hatching operations were quantified to be 6.946 and 82 cubic meter, respectively by using flow meter (Star log Version 4, Data Logger Management Software, Model 6308A/AUE, the Australia) in which Minimum and maximum velocity and flow rates were measured in breeding and hatching pool. The minimum water requirement for the whole process was quantified to be around 90 cubic meters for a production of 1 Million spawn. Water qualities like temperature (26 to 28°C), dissolved oxygen (4.4- 4.8 ppm), NH4+, pH (7.03 and NO3- (0.3-0.6 ppm) were recorded during the process. The present study thus pave a way for judicious use of available water in the hatchery unit.

Key words: Rohu, spawning and hatching operation, FRP hatchery, velocity distribution

A study on butterfly diversity in Singur, West Bengal, India

Pritam K. Dey, Arajush Payra and Krishnendu Mondal


The present study was carried out to understand the butterfly diversity in Singur, West Bengal, India from March 2015 to November 2016. A total of 69 species of butterflies belonging to 54 genera and five families were recorded from the present study. From the observed butterflies, family Nymphalidae was the most dominant among the five families with 22 species, followed by Lycaenidae comprising of 19 species, Hesperiidae with composition of 12 species, Pieridae with 8 species and Papilionidae with 7 species. Among these 69 species, five species were found to be protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, (1972). The present study added valuable information on diversity of butterfly fauna and will contribute in developing effective conservation measures in Hooghly district of West Bengal.

Key Words: Butterfly, diversity, conservation, Singur, Hooghly

An inventory of Odonata fauna in Bonai Forest Division, Western Odisha, India

S. Debata, H.S. Palei, P.P. Mohapatra and A.K. Mishra


While carrying out biodiversity inventory in Bonai Forest division of Western Odisha, India in between 2011 and 2012, we assessed the diversity of odonates. During the survey, a total 36 species of odonates including 26 species of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and 10 species of damselflies were recorded. Overall, family Libellulidae is dominated by 22 species over others. The odonate diversity of Bonai Forest division accounted for 37% of the odonata diversity of Odisha. A long term studies on these lesser known fauna will be useful in understanding their status and monitoring the change over time in this habitat.

Keywords: Anisoptera, damselflies, dragonflies, Sundergarh, Zygoptera

Ethnobotanical study of Malyagiri hill ranges, Odisha, India

Biswajeet Panda, Bhaskar Behera and Siba Prasad Parida M.K. Pradhan and R.K. Nayak


Malyagiri hill ranges located on the south of Pallahara town of Angul district in the state of Odisha is endowed with rich with flora and fauna. This area is rich with large number of medicinal plants and plants of other socio-economic importance. From the past floristic studies conducted by earlier workers it is evident that intensive floristic studies have not been conducted in this region. Large number of tribal people also inhabit around Malyagiri and its periphery. These people are utilizing various plants and plant products for medicinal and other purpose. Thus this area is also much rich with indigenous knowledge which is on the verge of extinction due to the advent of modern Allopathic system of medicine. Keeping these facts in mind, intensive floristic as well as ethnobotanical studies have been undertaken in various locations of this region. About four hundred medicinal plants have been collected and identified from different locations of this region. During the present investigation it is evident that large number of medicinal plants are found to be present in this region which are much useful for herbal drug industry. Some species are also on the verge of extinction in this region due to habitat loss. As such conservation and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants is an urgent need for the maintenance of ecological balance in this region.

KEY WORDS: Ethnobotanical study, Malyagiri hill ranges, medicinal plants, conservation

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