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Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to variable levels of phosphorus fertilization in Ghazni province, Afghanistan

Mahmood Hemat, Sayed Rahim Ghafari, Mohammad Qayom Mangal, Habibu Llah Hamayon, Mohammad Omer Derwish and Mohammad Amin Omari


Chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.)is one ofthemajorlegume crops grown inAfghanistan having considerable importance as food, feed and fodder, but due to imbalanced use of fertilizers, its productivity is low. To find the optimum level of phosphorus application for chickpea and study their effect on growth and characteristics a field experiment was conducted during spring 2017 at Agronomy Research Farm, Agriculture Faculty of Ghazni University, Ghazni, Afghanistan with cold and semi-arid climate. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design having four replications with five levels of P (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P2 O5 ha-1). Results revealed that application of increasing levels of phosphorus significantly increased growth parameters, yield attributes and yield. With successive increase in levels of phosphorus there was significant increase plan height, branch per plant, pod per plant, seed per plant, test weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield up to 60 kg P2 O5 . However, maximum plant height (66.1 cm), branch per plant (8.8), pod per plant (64.10), seed per pod (1.36), seed per plant (83.7), test weight (234.75), grain yield (2035.3 kg ha-1), straw yield (4047.9 kg ha-1), biological yield (6083.2 kg ha-1) were recorded with 60 kg P2 O5 ha-1, which were significantly greater than control, 15 and 30 kg P2 O5 ha-1,but these parameters were at par with 45 kg P2 O5 ha-1.

Water productive and profitable dry season crops for tropical coastal region of India

S. K. Sarangi, B. Maji, S. Singh, K.K. Mahanta and D.K. Sharma


Rice is the predominant crop in the coastal region during wet season (June-December). Dry season (December-May) cropping is constrained by limited availability of irrigation water. A study was undertaken to find out dry season crops, which are water productive and profitable in the coastal region of India. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) during dry season was highest in case of sugarcane (11789 m3 ha-1), followed by dry season (boro) rice (6048 m3 ha-1) and eggplant (5072 m3 ha-1). Irrigation water productivity (WP) was highest in tomato (2.95 kg m-3) followed by eggplant (2.41 kg m-3) among vegetables and sunflower (1.77 kg m-3) followed by maize (1.01 kg m-3) among field crops. Cropping systems like rice-tomato, rice-maize, rice-potato and rice-sunflower resulted in higher WP on net return basis (> `. 24 m-3). The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was higher for rice-sunflower (3.2), rice-tomato, riceeggplant (3.0) and 2.4 or more for rice-onion and rice-maize. Key words: B:C ratio, coastal region, crop diversification, evapotranspiration, water productivity

Key words: Canned food, food spoilage, thermophilic anaerobes

Effect of zinc and boron on growth and yield of green gram at Bhawanipatna, Kalahandi, Odisha

S. Behera, B. Sinha, A. Padhiary, A. Nayak, D. Behera, T. Das and R. Rout


Key words: Burnt area, climatic variables, fire occurrence, MODIS

Studies on heterosis for yield and yield attributes in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

M. Imran, Manasi Dash, T. R. Das, Mandakini Kabi, B. Baisakh and D. Lenka


Heterosis for yield and its attributes were studied in 15 selected crosses belonging to 15 parental lines. The crosses were made during Summer 2016. The resulting 15 hybrids along with their parents were grown in randomized block design with 3 replications during kharif 2016. Observations were taken for 8 quantitative traits, viz., days to maturity, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, capsule width, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. Analysis of variance was carried out for all the characters studied in F1. Relative heterosis (RH) and heterobeltiosis was estimated as per cent increase (or decrease) of F1 mean over the mid parent value for seed yield and its components. Standard heterosis (SH) was calculated as per cent increase over standard check genotype. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the 15 parents and 15 hybrids for eight characters including seed yield. Highest degree of relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis was observed for yield per plant and the lowest degree for capsule length. The highest degree of standard heterosis was observed for capsule number per plant and the lowest degree for days to maturity. The hybrid RT-346/VRI-2 was found to be promising for high seed yield, early days to maturity, capsule number per plant and thousand seed weight. Key word: Heterobeltiosis, relative heterosis, sesame, standard heterosis.

Key words: Amino acids, law of diminishing returns, Mitscherlich equation, swine, maintenance and growth requirements

Modelling options for analysing ruminal ammonia-N concentration profiles

M.S. Dhanoa, R. Sanderson, R.C. Siddons, S. Lopez and J. France


In this communication we descuss mathematical models that can be used to describe ammonia-N concentration profiles in the rumen of animals post-feeding. The unimodal pattern of ammonia-N profile following a single meal is modelled and analysed. Animals fed twice daily show bimodal patterns where each component is separated due to the time interval between feeding times. Thus the selected model can be fitted to each peak separately. Various modelling options are explained and illustrated. There are three categories of models discussed: (1) summarising models to generate data for treatment comparisons, (2) kinetics-based models that furnish parameter estimates and meaningful functions thereof which can be used for treatment comparisons and (3) empirical models to generate quantitative information for further analysis. More complete information was obtained while analysing ammonia-N profiles using kinetics-based models such as the critical exponential and summarising models such as the single Gaussian. Key words: Gaussian function, lactation curve, Michaelis-Menten equation, modelling options, rumen ammonia-N concentration profiles, saturation kinetics.

Subhalaxmi Sahoo, Niranjana Sahoo, Rashmi Ranjan Swain and Bikash Kumar Behera

Growth performance, feed efficiency and linear body measurements of triple cross progenies of Hansli, CSML and CSFL chickens

D. P. Sahoo, N. C. Behura, Lipismita Samal, B. Nandi, J. Bagh, G.D. Nayak and P.K. Pati


Performances of two genotypes of broiler chicken were studied under intensive system of management to evaluate their growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR), livability percentage and linear body measurements. The genotypes were; (i) T1: Coloured synthetic broiler crosses (CSML ♂ × CSFL ♀ crosses) (ii) T2: (Hansli × CSML) ♂ × CSFL ♀ crosses. The chicks in T1 group registered higher (p < 0.01) body weight and body weight gain as compared to those in T2 group at all stages of growth, i.e., from 1st week to 8th week. The cumulative feed intake of the T2 birds was lower (p≤0.05) than that of the T1 birds from 2-5 week of age, but no significant difference (p≥0.05) was found from 6th to 8th week of age. There was no difference of FCR between both the groups. Similar mortality rate (1.66%) was also observed in both the groups. T2 chicks showed higher values (p≤ 0.05) for breast angle and beak length at 6th week, which became similar at 8th week while T1 chicks showed higher value (p≤0.01 or 0.05) in shank length, shank width, body length, body height, body girth, keel length at 6th and 8th week. Key words: Coloured broiler, FCR, growth performance, Hansli, linear body measurements, triple cross.

Keywords: Groundnut, genetic variability, heritability, correlation, morphometric traits

Infestation of parasitic copepod, Lernanthropus latis (Siphonostomatoida ; Lernanthropidae) Yamaguti, 1954 on wild Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer along Bay of Bengal off Chennai coast, India.

S.N. Sethi, B.K. Das and J.K. Sundaray


An attempt was made to investigate the parasitic infection in wild Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer along Bay of Bengal coast, India. Several numbers of fish caught from Kasimedu fishing harbour were examined for the presence of parasites. In all the fish examined, gills were infected with a single species of copepod, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti (1954). The prevalence of this parasite in different fish ranged from 2 to 24 parasites per host with a mean intensity of 9.7. The adult female parasites were found to have oblong cephalothorax with egg-strings spreading throughout the gills. Parasitic infected gills had pale discolouration and abnormal mucus secretion. Key words: Asian sea bass, Lernanthropus latis, Parasitic gill copepod.

Key words: Organic mulch, Rajma, moisture depletion pattern, soil depth

Evaluation of nutritionally enriched, microbially fermented feed on growth and survival of fingerlings of Puntius gonionotus (Bleaker)

A.P. Nayak, S.K. Misra, S. Nanda, K.N. Mohanta, D. Satpathy, R.N. Mishra and B.R. Samantaray


Continuous efforts have been made towards utilization of low-cost oil cakes in fish diet formulations to counteract problems related to shortage of quality fish meal and increased price of conventional fish feed ingredients like soyabean meal, groundnut oil cake and mustard oil cake. This study determined the extent to which the low cost sesame and sunflower oil cakes could be fermented through solid state fermentation process and used in formulating diets for fingerlings of Puntius gonionotus. Autoclaved doughs made from sesame and sunflower oil cakes powder with 60% moisture content were fermented separately with three probiotics viz. Aqualact, Rhodomax and Uni-Nutrich plus by using inoculum with a proportion of probiotics powder : jaggery : water :: 5 g : 25 g : 160 ml (per kg of oil cake substrate) for seven days. Fermented feed samples were collected in each 24h interval, oven dried at 60 + 5°C up to constant moisture level; analyzed for its nutrients and ANFs composition. The best among the fermented products with in respect to their protein (maximum), fibre (minimum) and ANFs (nil) content were chosen for formulating experimental diets for Java Punti fingerlings. Eight iso-nitrogenous (30% crude protein) and iso-caloric (3.7 kcal g -1) experimental diets (D1-D8) were formulated by using raw sesame and sunflower oil cakes (two control diets, D1 and D2) and fermented sesame and sunflower oil cakes (six test diets, D3-D6). Fingerlings of P. gonionotus, reared for 60 days with the diet containing 24h Aqualact fermented sesame oil cake (D3), showed higher growth and higher value of protein in the carcass than those reared with the control diet containing raw sesame oil cakes (D1). Fermented sesame and sunflower oil cakes were found to be viable alternatives of costlier fish meal, soyabean meal, groundnut oil cake and mustard oil cake in the formulation diets for fingerlings of P. gonionotus. Key words : Probiotics, Puntius gonionotus, sesame oil cake, SSF, sunflower oil cake.

Keywords: Sunflower thresher, energy expenditure, output, cardiac cost, threshing efficiency

Man-made activities affecting the breeding ground of horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1795) along Balasore coast: Call for urgent conservation

Siddhartha Pati, SanatanTudu, A. SaiRajesh, GobindaChandra Biswal, AnilChatterji,Bisnu Prasad Dash andR.K. Samantaray


Four species of horseshoe crabs exist today. All the four species of horseshoe crabs are classified as either near threatened or data deficient. Out of the four, two species are distributed along the northeast coast of India. Spawning activity has been adversely affected by the degradation and destruction of spawning beaches. The study was carried out from February 2015 to June 2017 to identify the most influential factors that worked against the nesting sites of Tachepleus gigas in two estuaries namely Khandia (Site-1) and Balaramgadi (Site-2). The nesting activity of T. gigas was found only during full moon periods and took place mostly at Site-1. The present study also confirmed that Khandia was a potential breeding ground for T. gigas where its male and female brooders were found throughout the investigation during 2015-16, but due to over human activities their population declined drastically during 2017. Balaramgadi estuary was earlier reported to be a national breeding ground for the T. gigas. Due to the rapid development along the coast and extensive fishing activities, the natural sandy beach and estuary environment of Balaramgadi has been destroyed. These changes drastically affect the breeding habit of T. gigas. It is a matter of concern and perhaps that day is not far away when we will not be able to encounter T. gigas breeding pairs at Khandia estuary. Key words: Balaramgadi estuary, Khandia estuary, horseshoe crabs, Tachepleus gigas.

Key words: Rohu, spawning and hatching operation, FRP hatchery, velocity distribution

Fodder plants of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) in Kapilash Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha, India

Nimain C. Palei, Himanshu Shekhar Palei, Bhakta P. Rath and Arun Kumar Mishra


The present study was carried out to document the fodder plants of Indian giant squirrel in the tropical deciduous forest of Kapilash Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha, India. During the study, 53 species of plants under 27 families were documented. The Indian giant squirrel feeds primarily on fruits besides bark, seeds, leaves, flowers, piths, and buds.Intensive survey was undertaken to document the fodder plants relished by Indian giant squirrel keeping an objective of conserving this endemic charismatic tree squirrel of tropical forests of India. Key words: Fodder plants, Indian giant squirrel, Kapilash wildlife sanctuary, Odisha, Ratufa indica.

Key Words: Butterfly, diversity, conservation, Singur, Hooghly

Lightning deaths in free ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Deogarh, Odisha, India

Niranjana Sahoo, Sourabh Ranjan Hota, R.K. Samantaray and Alok Kumar Das


Lightning has long been established as one of the killers of domestic as well as wild animals especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Very limited scientific studies are available on such deaths especially in wild elephants. Present study is based on the investigation of the cause of death of three free-ranging Asian elephants in a remote forest area of Deogarh district of Odisha, India. In this case, all the three elephant carcasses were found in close proximity in a particular direction. There was absence of any signs of struggle near the site of death. Skins were found to be highly desiccated with distinctly marked protrusion of the eyeballs in all the three carcasses. There were absence of pathological lesions in any of the visible body parts. The most striking character was the presence of a char mark in the postero-medial thigh of left hind limb extending up to the level of abdomen of the first elephant, probably leading the herd. These findings along with the circumstantial evidence of burn marks in nearby trees and history of thunderstorm two days prior to the discovery of the carcass, confirmed lightning as the cause of death of these three elephants. Key words: Asiatic elephant, Deogarh, lightning, post-mortem examination.

Keywords: Anisoptera, damselflies, dragonflies, Sundergarh, Zygoptera

Diversity and status of birds in Bonai Forest Division, Odisha, India

H. S. Palei, S. Debata, Pratyush. P. Mohapatra and A. K. Mishra


The study on bird diversity and status of Bonai Forest Division of Sundergarh district, Odisha was carried out between January and December 2011. During the study period, a total of 173 species belonging to 55 families were recorded. Of these 82% (n=141) were residents, 13% (n=23) were winter visitors, 3% (n=6) were summer visitors, 2% (n=3) were passage visitors. Based on frequency of sightings, 47.4% (n=82) bird species were common, 31.8% (n=55) were uncommon, 16.8% (n=29) were rare and 4.05% (n=7) were occasional. The avifauna diversity in the study area shows the importance of the area as an ideal bird habitat. Key words: Avifauna, bird diversity, Bonai forest division, ecosystem

KEY WORDS: Ethnobotanical study, Malyagiri hill ranges, medicinal plants, conservation

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