Vegetation mapping and management strategy of mangroves of Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Odisha: A remote sensing approach
R.C. Misra, D.R. Pani, P. Kumar and P. Das
Mangrove forest of Bhitarkanika constitutes a specialized eco-geographical region enjoying a different ecological status quite distinct from inland forests. In India, the mangroves of Bhitarkanika inhabit a unique and vulnerable ecosystem harbouring very rich floristic composition and occupies second most important mangrove habitat in respect of wider species diversity and quality. In the present report, the status of land use and vegetation regarding their types with dominant species composition, crown density and spatial coverage has been assessed based on the image characteristics of remote sensing satellite data. The multispectral imagery exhibits that the mangrove forest of Bhitarkanika have been subjected to rapid destruction and degradation due to ruthless exploitation, mass encroachment for human habitation and conversion of mangroves to scrubs, agriculture lands, aquaculture sites, mud or tidal flats etc. In view of the importance and uniqueness of the ecosystem, a strategy has been developed for conservation and management of mangroves integrating the resource information generated from satellite data, Survey of India topographical maps and supplementary data. In view of the immense economic potentiality of genetic diversity of mangroves at species and ecosystem level, the establishment of a mangrove genetic resource centre has been prioritized to act as mangrove heritage site in Eastern India.
Key words: Bhitarkanika sanctuary, land use, management strategy, remote sensing, vegetation status
R. Sahu, N. Chaudhary, S.R. Hota, S. Nayak, J.K. Sahoo and A.R. Sahu
Rickettsia are obligate intracellular organisms, associated with number of diseases in humans and animals. Although Rickettsial diseases are highly prevalent in India, they are grossly under-reported. These diseases are showing an upward trend in India, with increased reports in the last decade, especially Canine Rickettsiosis and Bovine anaplasmosis in animals, while scrub typhus, endemic typhus, and epidemic typhus are important emerging or re-emerging zoonoses in human being. Regardless of the emerging scenario of Rickettsial diseases, there are a very few systematic studies on epidemiology of these pathogens.
Key words: Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, endemic typhus, epidemic typhus, Rickettsia, scrub typhus
Correlation analysis of forage production of sorghum, cowpea and rice-bean under varying seed rates of intercrops
A. Reza, Y.P Joshi and U.B.S. Panwar
A field experiment was conducted at Forage Agronomy Block of Instructional Dairy Farm at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand during kharif 2011 to find out the correlation between growth, yields and quality parameters of legumes (cowpea: Vigna unguiculata L. var. UPC-5286 and rice-bean: Vigna umbellate L. var. RB-1) and sorghum (Sorgum bicolar L. Moench, var. Pant chari-5) crops in intercrops. Overall, intercropping system reduced the growth parameters of crops than sole stand. The correlation studies indicated that association between growth parameters and yield as well as quality was positive and significant, except land equivalent ratio which negatively correlated with growth, yield and quality parameters.
Key words: Correlation, cowpea, growth parameters, intercropping, rice bean, sorghum
Effect of different levels of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth and yield of soybean in Paktia, Afganistan
S.W. Jalalzai, Y.K. Ziar, N.K. Mohammadi and M.G. Arabzai
A field research was conducted during spring season in 2017 at Paktia province, Afghanistan to find out the effect of different levels of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth and yield of soybean in Paktia, Afghanistan. The treatments consisted of T1 = recommended K only, T2 = recommended FYM only, T3 = recommended NPK only, T4 = recommended NPK + FYM + PSB and Rhizobium, T5 = recommended FYM+ PSB and Rhizobium, T6 = recommended NPK + PSB and Rhizobium, T7 = 0 % recommended NP + recommended K+ FYM + PSB and Rhizobium, T8 = 50 % P and N + recommended K + FYM + PSB and Rhizobium. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results of experiment showed that T4 = recommended NPK + FYM + PSB and Rhizobium recorded significantly higher plant height (40 cm at 60 DAS and 51.47 cm at harvest), number of branches (6.57 at 60 DAS and 8.40 at harvest), number of root nodules (34 at 60 DAS and 58.43 at harvest), number of pods per plant (66.03), number of seeds per pod (2.57), 100 seeds weight (20.33 g), seed yield per plant (20.13 g), seed yield (2490 kg ha-1) and straw yield (4109 kg ha-1) and it was recorded non-significantly higher harvest index (38.20) and significantly higher gross return (1929 US$ ha-1), net return (1067 US$ ha-1) and net benefit cost of ratio (1.36). Based on the result of experiment it is recommended that for the higher yield of soybean the farmer should apply recommended NPK + FYM + PSB and Rhizobium.
Key words: Biofertilizers, phosphorus, soybean growth, yield
Residual effect of organic nutrient management on yield and economics of greengram in rice-greengram cropping system
R. Mahunta, A.K. Barik, P.K. Roul and C. Nayak
Field experiments were carried out at Gadarupasha, Puri, Odisha, India during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the effect of different sources of organic manures in comparison with RDF on economics of rice with succeeding greengram. The experiment consisted of twelve treatments, which were laid out in Randomized Block Design. In case of greengram the highest gross return was obtained in 50% RDN from vermicompost + 50% RDN from Dhaincha i.e. Rs. 47945/- which is statically at par with 50% RDN from FYM + 50% RDN from vermicompost. The pooled data revealed that the crop receiving 50% RDN from vermicompost + 50% RDN from Dhaincha recorded highest net return i.e. Rs. 32832/- per ha which was remain at par with 50% RDN from FYM + 50% RDN from vermicompost and significantly higher than other organic sources as sole as well as their combinations. The lowest gross return, net return and return per rupee invested were obtained in control treatment where no fertiliser or organic matter was applied.
Key words: Economics, greengram, Odisha, residual effect
Influence of varying phosphorus rates on productivity, resource-use efficiency and profitability of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ghazni province of Afghanistan
S.R. Ghafari, M.Q. Mangal, M. Hemat, A. Dass and M.N. Jalali
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the major pulse crops having considerable importance as food, feed and fodder. It is responsive to phosphorus (P) application, but no recommendation on P fertilization in chickpea is available for Afghanistan. Thus, to find out the optimum rate of P application in chickpea, a field experiment was conducted during spring season of 2017 at Agronomy Research Farm, Agriculture Faculty of Ghazni University, Ghazni, Afghanistan. It is characterized by cold and semi-arid climate. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments included five P application rates, 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results revealed that application of increasing rates of P significantly increased root nodule number, productivity, profitability and resource-use efficiency. With successive increase in levels of P there was a significant increase in root nodule count, grain yield, straw yield, gross returns, net returns, B:C ratio, water-use efficiency, production efficiency, monetary efficiency, total energy output, net energy benefit, energy-use efficiency and energy productivity up to 60 kg P2O5. However, maximum root nodule count (27.1), seed yield (2.04 t ha-1), straw yield (4.05 tha-1), grass returns (2,33,941 Afn. ha-1), net returns (1,84,516 Afn. ha-1), benefit: cost ratio (3.84), irrigation water-use efficiency (9.05 kg ha–1 mm–1), production efficiency (19.4 kg ha–1 day–1), monitory efficiency (1757.3 Afn. ha-1 day–1), total energy output (91,360 MJ ha–1), net energy output (79,810 MJ ha–1), energy- use efficiency (7.91) and energy productivity (0.176 kg MJ–1) were recorded with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, which were significantly greater than control, 15 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1, but these parameters were at par with 45 kg P2O5 ha-1.
Key words: Chickpea, energy, profitability, production efficiency, resource-use efficiency
Studies on variability, heritability and genetic advance for quantitative and qualitative traits in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
M. Chandrasekhar, K. Sethi, P. Tripathy, T.R. Das, M. Dash and A. Roy
Clonal planting materials of 25 cashew varieties were studied for their variability, heritability and genetic advance for qualitative and quantitative traits in cashew. Results revealed that variety, Vengurla-7 was the most vigorous, but dwarf in stature, and hence this cultivar can be used for high density planting. Chintamani-1 variety exhibited superiority in respect to floral traits like number of total laterals per m2 , flowering laterals per m2 , number of staminate flowers and total flowers per panicle. Bhubaneswar-1 variety recorded the highest number of perfect flowers per panicle, sex ratio, number of nuts per panicle and total soluble solid. Dhana and Jharagram-1 variety recorded the shortest and longest duration of flowering (89.5 vs. 150.5 days), respectively. Nut weight and kernel weight were recorded the maximum in Vengurla-7. The maximum shelling percentage (32.76%) was recorded in variety Kanaka. Among the evaluated varieties, BPP-8 recorded the maximum number of nuts per m2 ; mean annual nut yield (16.75 kg per plant) and cumulative nut yield (56.27 kg per plant). Studies on genetic variability revealed that characters like sex ratio, yield per plant, nuts per panicle and nuts per m had high heritability and high genetic advance together with high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV). Thus, these traits should be selected for cashew crop improvement. In the traits plant height, nut weight, trunk girth, canopy spread (E-W), total laterals per m2 , flowering laterals per m2 , flowering duration, kernel weight and apple weight showed high heritability, moderate genetic advance and moderate GCV, indicating improvement of these characters would be expected.
Key words: Cashew, heritability, morpho-economic traits, qualitative traits, variability
Response of growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to staking and plant spacing under protected culture
H. Hamayoun, M. Omer Darwiash, A.W. Tajzadh, I. Akramzoi and Z.Aslami
The study was performed in Ghazni University Agriculture faculty farm, south-east region of Afghanistan, to determine the effect of staking and plant spacing on the growth and yield of cucumber. Staked and non-staked crops and three plant spacing (60 cm × 20 cm, 60 cm × 30 cm and 60 cm × 40 cm) were evaluated. The study was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial randomized block design with five replications. Treatment means were separated using least significant difference (LSD=0.05). The result generated from the study showed that staking had no significant effect on weight of fruits, but showed significant effect on number of branches, number of leaves and vine length decreased as the plant spacing increased from 60 cm × 20 cm to 60 cm × 30 cm. The closest plant spacing (60 cm × 20 cm) recorded the highest value in all the parameters assessed in this trial except for number of flowers, days to 50% flowering, length of fruit and weight of fruit. The staked treatment constantly performed better with higher values than the non-staked treatment except for the flowers and number of non-marketable fruits. Hence for maximum production of cucumber staking and closer plant spacing should be adopted.
Key words: Staking, plant spacing, growth, yield
H. Supriya Devi , K. Mamocha Singh and K. Ningthoujam
The experiment was carried out during rabi 2015-16. Five crops viz. maize, sesamum, broad bean, niger and buckwheat were used as border crop in brinjal field. It was compared with alternate spray of dimethoate (0.05%) and lambda cyhalothrin (0.005%). Dimethoate was sprayed at 80 and 100 DAT and lambda cyhalothrin was sprayed at 90 and 110 DAT. Lowest incidence in brinjal was recorded in alternate spray of chemical pesticides. Amongst the different crop used as border crop, maize as border crop recorded significantly lower incidence of L. orbonalis than the other border crops. Farmers can adopt the practice of intercropping with maize to reduce the population of fruit borer and shoot borer of brinjal.
Key words: Dimethoate, intercropping, Leucinodes orbonalis, lambda cyhalothrin, Solanum melongena
S.K. Dash, A. Payra, P. Payra, H.S. Palei, R.K. Mishra and A.K. Mishra
Ansupa Lake is the largest freshwater lake of Odisha. An ichthyofaunal inventory was carried out in Ansupa Lake during January-September, 2015 to generate the present ichthyofaunal diversity. A total of 33 species belonging to 8 order, 18 families and 28 genera were recorded, where Perciformes was the most dominant order with 12 species. Cypriniformes was the second dominant order with 11 species, followed by Siluriformes (n=4), Osteoglossiformes (n=2), Beloniformes (n=1), Cyprinidontiformes (n=1), Synbranchiformes (n=1) and Tetradontiformes (n=1). Among the 33 recorded fishes, 29 species come under the least concern (LC) category, one species under data deficient (DD) and two species comes under near threatened (NT) category.
Key words: Ansupa lake, conservation status, diversity, fish
A.K. Bal, N.C. Palei, B.P. Rath and A.K. Mishra
The bird diversity study of Mundali area in Cuttack Forest Division of Cuttack District, Odisha was carried out from June 2016 to January 2017. During the study, a total of 185 species of birds belonging to 58 families and 20 orders were recorded. Out of 185 species a total 48% (n=88) species resident birds, 46% (n=85) species winter visitors, 4% (n=8) species passage visitors and 2% (n=4) species summer visitors were recorded in the study area. According to frequency of sighting of birds 96 species (53%) were common, 43 species (23%) were uncommon and 28 species (15%) were rare and 18 species (10%) were occasional recorded from the study area.
Key words: Avifauna, Cuttack Forest Division, diversity, Mundali area, Odisha
Call for conservation: Restoring the population of Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758) in upper Gangetic plains, India
Hyaena hyaena is one of the protected species in India and is listed in Schedule III of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. However, only few studies have been studied on the aspect of its distribution, ecology and status in India. In the State of Uttarakhand, Hyaena hyaena has a patchy distribution, especially across the upper Gangetic plains. Two small populations, consisting of about 15 and five individuals have been recorded from Chilla and Gohri range of Rajaji National Park and Shyampur and Chiriapur range of the Haridwar Forest Division. Besides, 14 dens of striped hyaena have also been documented from the same forests. The movement of hyaena along the long stretch of river Ganges, from Gohri forest of the Rajaji National Park to Chiriapur forest of the Haridwar Forest Division (about 35 kilometers long) indicates that the forests in upper Gangetic plains serve as a potential breeding ground for the species. There is an urgent need to conduct a base-line survey on the distribution and ecology of the species, which includes their past and present distribution, habitat type, movement and range utilization, diet composition, breeding behaviour and success, human interactions in response to environmental pressures. Considering the species on priority in wildlife management planning is also needed for long-term conservation of the species in Uttarakhand.
Key words: Conservation, habitat, Hyaena hyaena, Rajaji National Park, upper Gangetic plains