Evolution of system of rice intensification (SRI) and economic security in Tripura state of North East hill region of India
R. Singh and S.M. Feroze
India has developed a lot and production has taken momentum but parallel to this, the hunger index of India has not declined. Small-holder families constitute more than half of the national population. Many emerging site specific technologies have been initiated to enhance the production and nutritional status of the country. Among the technology, system of rice intensification (SRI) is one of them which has accelerated the livelihood of the farmers and also suitable for small operational holdings. A study to assess the impact of SRI on livelihood and nutritional food security in the state of Tripura, India has been conducted by collecting the primary data from 200 (100 SRI and 100 Non-SRI) smallholders household. Different indices were constructed to assess livelihood and food security. The SRI found highly economic beneficial method in production of rice in the state of Tripura with higher returns of 11.88 per cent difference between SRI and Non SRI farms. The method has impacted positively to enhance the food, nutrition, health and habitat. Moreover, adopted SRI households had 76 per cent better economic security than Non SRI household. Therefore, study recommend to realize its novelty through extension machinery of the state and also advocate developing a suitable package and practices with its economic benefits so that the SRI can get momentum to enhance area and production of the rice.
Key words: Economic security, evolution, food, SRI, Tripura
Precision nitrogen management in maize cultivars under variable growing environments: Effects on plant growth, normalised difference vegetation index and leaf nitrogen
A. P. Ghosh and Anchal Dass
Fine tuning the nitrogen (N) recommendations, i.e. appropriate rate and time of N fertilizer application is an important factor for enhancing the growth and quality performance of maize cultivars and reducing N losses. Studies have shown that the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil plant analysis development (SPAD) values were highly related with leaf N content of maize (Zea mays) and can sufficiently quantify the N requirements of maize plants. This study was conducted at New Delhi during rainy season of 2014-15 to determine the effects of two maize cultivars (PEEHM 5 and PC 3), three planting dates ( July 9, July 24 and August 7) and four N rates [Control (0 kg N ha-1), 30 kg N ha-1 basal + 30 kg N ha-1 when SPAD ≤ 37.5 till silking Chlorophyll meter based (CMB), 30 kg N ha-1 basal + 30 kg N ha-1 when SPAD ≤ 37.5 at knee-high, pre-tasseling, silking Chlorophyll meter based stage-wise (CMBSW) and soil test crop response based (STCRB, 160 kg N ha-1)] on different growth and quality characteristics of maize under north Indian conditions. Among plant characteristics, NDVI, SPAD value, leaf N content, total dry matter at maturity and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly higher in early planting dates, i.e. July 9 and CMB N treated crop than others at all the growth stages of maize. SPAD value recorded at tasseling stage were significantly correlated with estimated leaf N content and NDVI value at tasseling stage and total dry matter produced at maturity across the treatments.
Key words : Leaf N, maize cultivars, NDVI, N fertilizer, SPAD
S.M. Prasad, S. Saha, M. Chourasia, D.R. Sarangi, T.R. Sahoo, S. Sethy and R.K. Mohanta
A field experiment was conducted during wet seasons of three consecutive years, viz. 2013-15 under typical rainfed upland situation to evaluate the performance of different weed management techniques for improving the overall productivity and to work out the economics of different weed management practices in Vandana variety of rice. The highest grain yield (3.18 t ha-1) was observed in weed free condition where three hand weeding at 15, 30 and 45 DAS has been done followed by two hand weedings (2.97 t ha-1) at 15 and 35 DAS, which was at par with the stale seed bed + post emergence application of Azimsulfuron 35 g a.i. (2.86 t ha-1) with weed control efficiency (WCE) of 90.8 per cent. Yield reduction due to weed competition in weedy plot was 58% over weed free check. Use of Azimsulfuron at 35 g a.i. per ha at 20 DAS proved to be more cost effective over the other treatments (BC ratio 1.21). Thus, use of Azimsulfuron at 35 g a.i. per ha 20 DAS was found to be the most cost-effective practice in upland conditions simulating the conditions prevalent in the present study.
Key words:Economics, upland rice, weed management, yield attributes
Habibullah Hamayoun and Gul Ahmad Zahiryan
Some of the horticultural crops are reproduced by asexual methods of plant propagation to regenerate clonal varieties although the sexual propagation method has also practiced for different plants. This can be done naturally for those plants which are propagating by vegetative means through specialized organs or by human intervention for targeted crops. The specialized plant organs are those plant parts which have used for storage of food reserves and propagation purposes. They reproduce by dividing and further separating the organs from their mother plants and are propagated to produce new clonal plants. Propagation by division is a form in which a group of plants or plant parts are cut which contains one or more of the underground or aerial roots or stem parts. This method is commonly used for different economically important horticultural crops viz. apple propagated by tongue grafting, grape propagated by hard wood cutting, strawberry by runner, potato by tuber, onion by bulb etc. In different field of horticultural crops propagation industry, identifying the appropriate plant parts that used for propagation and their methods of propagation are fundamental for plant propagators.
Key words: Bulb, hard wood cutting, propagation, runner, tongue grafting, tuber
J. M. Mawthoh, Lala I.P. Ray, A.K. Singh, N.J. Singh and R.S. Dhivya
A field experiment was conducted under organic regime on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in mid hills of Meghalaya during 2018-19 at experimental farm of College of Agriculture, Kyrdemkulai, Meghalaya. The treatments included irrigation scheduling and organic manure application, viz., irrigation at sprouting (S1 ); irrigation at sprouting + stolonization (S2 ); irrigation at sprouting + stolonization + tuber initiation (S3 ); irrigation at sprouting + stolonization + tuber initiation + tuber bulking (S4 ) and organic treatments comprised of FYM (Farmyard manure) (M1 ), poultry manure (M2 ) and control (M0 ). Tuber yield was found to be significantly higher under S2 (17.52 t ha-1) yielded the highest followed by S4 (16.62 t ha-1) and S3 (14.87 t ha-1), whereas, S1 (6.61 t ha-1) recorded the lowest yield. Organic manure treatments yielded significant results. M2 (17.77 t ha-1) showed the highest tuber yield closely followed by M1 (13.94 t ha-1) and lowest yield was reported by M0 (10.22 t ha-1). Maximum gross return, net return and BCR were reported in S2 followed by S4 , S3 and S1 . In case of organic manure, higher gross return, net return and BCR was recorded in M2 followed by M1 and M0 . Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) also showed significant difference among the organic manure treatments, M2 (2.82) produced the highest BCR over M1 (2.13) and M0 (1.79).
Key words: BCR, irrigation scheduling, organic manure, potato, strip plot design
S. Muna, B. Mallick and B. Taria
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important vegetable of the world. Its demand in the market is throughout the year though it is regarded as a winter crop. In the well drained soils of plateau ecosystem, it can be cultivated in kharif season even in open field. Mayurbhanj district of Odisha is an extension of Chhotanagpur plateau representing North Central plateau agro climatic zone. Tomato is cultivated by the farmers of the district sporadically with the varieties available in local market. This experiment was under taken during 2015-16 to 2016-17 in the KVK, Mayurbhanj adopted village Badabil in the Farmers’ field to evaluate the performance of best suitable tomato variety in kharif season. From the three F1 hybrids taken, Laxmi variety was found giving the highest yield of 178.4 q ha-1 though it was more prone to wilting like diseases. Proper plant protection measures should be taken to reduce the yield loss due to incidence of insect pest and diseases. Arka Rakshak F1 hybrid was found less suitable in this plateau ecosystem for kharif season.
Key words: Kharif, plateau, tomato, wilt, yield
Role of socio-economic variables and non-timber forest products on the livelihood dependency of forest fringe communities in Khordha forest division, Odisha
M. Sahoo, H. Nayak and T.L. Mohanty
The objective of the paper was to analyze the socio economic status of forest fringe communities in Khordha Forest Division of Odisha. The study was based on primary data collected from villages in two Ranges namely, Balugaon and Ranpur range in Khordha Forest Division. Hundred respondents were randomly selected, data were collected through a structured survey questionnaire, analyzed with appropriate statistical methods and were interpreted in accordance with the objectives of the study. In the study area, it was found that the tribal males of age group 18-40 years were involved in non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection. Generally, married persons were involved in the NTFPs collection to support their family with around family size of 4-8 members. We found that 80% of the respondents belonged to landless, marginal and small land holding, because of the small land holding category. The poor condition of the people also influenced the house type i.e. 73% of respondent’s possessed kutcha house and semi-pucca house.
Key words: Forest, forest produce, livelihood, NTFPs, socioeconomic variables
H.K. Sahoo, S. Dehury and R.C. Misra
The frequency of cyclones has increased manifold in the recent years thus devastating the coastal and adjoining districts of Odisha. The cyclonic storm ‘Fani’ hit Odisha coast during May 2019 and devastated extensively in many coastal districts including the capital city of Bhubaneswar. It caused a great loss to the vegetation cover with uprooting of trees particularly along tree-lined avenues which necessitated assessing the damage of different tree species in the state capital. This destructive impact of cyclone Fani on the roadside vegetation in parts of the city was evaluated based on visual estimation and type of damages.
Key words: Bhubaneswar city, cyclone, damage, Fani, tree
M.R. Pattnaik and S.K. Sen
An attempt has been made to highlight some of the plants growing in mangrove areas of Kansaridia forest block of Mahanadi Delta in Odisha, located along the east coast of India. A field survey was undertaken in this forest block to record the ethno-medicinal utility of certain mangrove plants. The present paper deals with 20 plant species of 14 genera belonging to 11 families. The collected plant specimens were identified using regional flora and herbarium deposited in the Mangrove Forest Division (Wildlife), Rajnagar.
Key words: Ethno-medicine, Kansaridia block, Mahanadi delta, mangrove plants
Molecular detection of Theileria spp. in apparently healthy cervids of Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha
S.K. Sahu, S.R. Hota, B.K. Behera, M. Dash and N. Sahoo
Theileria spp., predominantly a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites of cattle, do infect wild animals especially in endemic areas. Identification of infectious agents provides valuable information on epidemiology. Molecular study was conducted in two species of wild cervids, i.e., brow-antlered deer and sambar deer of Nandankanan Zoological Park (NZP), Bhubaneswar, Odisha to assess the occurrence of blood pathogen. Following DNA extraction from the whole blood samples, the product was subjected to PCR with 989/990 primers specific for Theileria genus where a product size of 1098bp upon gel electrophoresis were recorded in positive cases. Out of 9 brow-antlered deer and 12 sambar deer samples processed, 8 samples (4 from each species) showed presence of Theileria spp. indicating a prevalence rate of 38 per cent. The study uncovered the carrier stage of Theileria spp. among wild cervidae population in NZP and thereby laid down stepping stone towards control measures.
Key words: Carrier stage, Nandankanan Zoological Park, PCR, theileriosis, wild cervid
Photographic evidences of Indian grey wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) in Sundergarh forest division, Odisha, India
N.C. Palei, B.P. Rath, H.S. Palei and A.K. Mishra
The Indian grey wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a rare and lesser-known top predator in India. A rapid camera trapping survey was conducted to assess the large carnivores and their preys in the Sundargarh forest division, Odisha, India. Two individuals of Indian grey wolf were recorded during the survey offering the first photographic evidence of the Indian grey wolf outside protected areas of Odisha. This record increases knowledge on the distribution of the species. More extensive surveys are needed to understand the distribution and population dynamics of Indian grey wolf in the area. We provide photographic evidence of Indian grey wolves and highlight the importance of Odisha forest for species conservation.
Key words: Camera trapping, Canis lupus, Indian grey wolf, Odisha, photographic evidence
A. Singh , R. Joshi and K. Puri
Red wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus) is a ground bird, residing in the open countryside, ploughed fields, grazing patches, and dry beds of water bodies in parts of Asia. Literature reveals that typical nesting habitat of this bird includes open country, grazing land, fallow fields, dry beds of village tanks, and islets in rivers. In natural conditions, 3-4 eggs are laid in a ‘ground scrape’ or a depression, sometimes fringed with pebbles and goat or hare droppings. Here, we report observations of the nesting of Red-Wattled Lapwing on a cemented rooftop of house in Dehradun (30° 19′ 31.00″ N, 78° 0′ 6.00″ E), Uttarakhand State, India. This ground-nesting bird species have adapted to the rapid urbanisation including urban environments and have developed change in their breeding sites depending upon the needs of their young. Our observations provide incentive to gather more data in connection with changing nesting pattern of ground-nesting bird species. Further, there has been limited study on the range of threats being faced by the lapwings in the state of Uttarakhand. More studies have to be conducted to ascertain the reasons causing such a shift in the nesting habitat of the species .
Key words: Nesting pattern, Red wattled lapwing, threats, urbanisation, Uttarakhand
M.K. Mishra, A.P. Acharya, S.K. Panda, B.K. Patra and K. Behera
The present study was conducted in buffaloes over a period of five years from 1st July 2012 to 30th June 2017. The blood samples received in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha from buffaloes suspected to be affected with theileriosis on basis of clinical signs were included in the study. The cases were screened by examination of stained blood smear. Out of 180 numbers of blood samples from buffaloes, 168 (93%) cases were found positive and 12 (7%) cases were found negative. Season wise distribution of cases showed that the disease was highly prevalent in summer (44.04%) followed by rainy (35.11%) and least in winter season (20.83%). The disease was more seen in middle aged (6-9 yrs) animals followed by young to adult animals of
Key words: Buffalo, theileriosis, clinical signs, hematology, Piroplasms