H.K. Sahoo, S.K. Nath and B. Behera
The present investigation on economic viability and sustainability of crop-fish-poultry-mushroom integration against conventional farming in rainfed rice farms were carried out for three consecutive years from kharif 2010 to rabi 2013 at Khajuripada cluster villages of Kandhamal district, Dhenkanal Sadar and Odapada cluster villages of Dhenkanal district and Golamunda and Narla cluster villages of Kalahandi district of Odisha. The treatments of study consisted of two factors viz. sources of water i.e. P0 : without water harvesting structure (rainfed, no pond), P1 : with water harvesting structure (irrigated, with pond) and size of farm i.e. marginal: 0.8 ha, small: 1.6 ha. The treatments were in factorial randomized block design with five replications. The 1.6 ha integrated farming system (IFS) model gave rice equivalent yield (REY) of 44.93 t, net return of 2,27,521 and B: C of 1.83 as compared to REY of 6.70 t, net return of 15,235 and B:C of 1.26 in conventional rice-greengram cropping system. Sustainable yield and value index in 0.8 ha IFS model increased to 0.84 and 0.47 as compared to 0.10 and 0.03 in rice-greengram conventional pair cropping and in 1.6 ha IFS model increased to 0.82 and 0.44 over 0.13 and 0.03 in conventional cropping. The labour employment in both IFS models increased to 588 and 942 as compared to 204 and 400 in respective conventional rice farms. The land use efficiency had also increased over conventional system. Thus, this recommended model proved to be sustainable over the conventional practice in rainfed rice cropping situations of Odisha.
Key words : Land use efficiency, rainfed, rice equivalent yield, sustainable yield index
Comparative study of yield gaps and economics in soybean (Glycine max L.) through frontline demonstrations in Dhar district,Madhya Pradesh
G.S. Gathiye, K.S. Kirad, S.S. Chauhan and J.S. Rajpoot
A study was carried out to analyze the yield gaps and economics in soybean (Glycine max L.) through frontline demonstrations by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Dhar, Madhya Pradesh at tribal farmers’ fields of Dhar district. The highest yield (1876 kg ha-1) of soybean was recorded in recommended practice whereas the minimum yield (1340 kg ha-1) was recorded in farmers’ practice under rainfed conditions during the year 2018-19. An increase of 43.2% in yield with demonstration over farmer’s practice was recorded. The technological gap (324 kg ha-1), extension gap (536 kg ha-1) and technological index (17.72%) were recorded under frontline demonstrations. The maximum gross monetary return (` 56280 ha-1) was recorded in recommended practice, while the minimum gross monetary return (` 40200 ha-1) was observed in farmer’s practice. Moreover, the maximum net monetary returns (` 28780 ha-1) was recorded in recommended practice and the minimum net monetary returns was observed in farmers’ practice (` 13950 ha-1) while the highest B:C ratio (2.04) was also found in recommended practice as compared to farmers’ existing practice (1.53).
Key words: Economics, extension gap, technology index, technology transfer, yield
Evaluation of some rice hybrids and high yielding varieties for their resistance to major insect pests and diseases in coastal plain of Odisha
U.S. Nayak, K.C. Barik, C.K. Das and S.S. Mahapatra
Biotic stress in the form of insect pest infestation and disease incidence is a major production constraint in rice contributing lower productivity and profitability. Though pesticide application continues to be the most preferred pest control strategy, its injudicious application has many undesirable effects on the human health and surrounding environment. Host plant resistance mechanism with the development of resistant and tolerant varieties against the targeted pests is gaining importance over the years to reduce the pest damage and minimize the load of harmful pesticides in the agro-ecosystem. Experiments carried out at the Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Ranital in 2018 and 2019 revealed that among the test hybrids and high yielding varieties of rice a significantly lower plant hopper and leaf hopper population was recorded in the hybrid BS 144 and the high yielding variety MTU-1010. The test hybrid BS 133 though had little higher population of plant and leaf hoppers, produced higher grain yield in comparison to other hybrids and varieties indicating the presence of some tolerance mechanism in this hybrid against the sucking pest complex of rice. The lowest sheath blight and BLB incidence was recorded in the variety MTU 1010, whereas among the hybrids, BS 144 and BS 133 had comparatively lower disease incidence. The hybrids Sahadri and Arize bold were found to be highly susceptible to the major insect pest and diseases of rice. The hybrids BS 144 and BS 133 and the high yielding variety MTU-1010 were found to have higher yield potential during the wet season at the coastal plain zone of Odisha and their yield performance may further increase if timely and need based plant protection measures will be adopted.
Key words : Disease resistance, HYV, pest resistance, rice varieties, screening
Variability and correlation studies of yield and yield attributing characters in finger millet(Eleusine coracana L.)
A.M. Prusti and T.R. Das
A field experiment was carried out to estimate the correlation coefficient for eight quantitative characters viz., days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, number of fingers per earhead, weight of earhead per plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant in 18 genotypes of finger millet which were sown in a randomized block design with three replications under six environments. The six environments under which the genotypes were tested appear to be quite diverse. The environmental effects were highly significant for all the eight quantitative characters and constituted major part of the total variation. The genotypes showed low coefficient of variation for days to heading, days to maturity, fingers per earhead and 1000 grain weight, moderate coefficient of variation for plant height and effective tillers per plant where as high coefficient of variation found for earhead weight per plant and grain yield per plant. The study showed that grain yield per plant had positive and significantly correlated with earhead weight per plant followed by effective tillers per plant and 1000 grain weight which revealed that these characters were the major contributors to grain yield per plant. These characters can be considered as criteria for selection to improve the grain yield per plant in finger millet.
Key words: Coefficient of variation, correlation, environment, finger millet, grain yield
Influence of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Bargad
H. Hamayoun, M.O. Darwish and H. Faizy
An investigation was undertaken to study the influence of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Bargad during kharif 2016 at Regional Horticultural Research Station, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India. It indicated that the maximum plant height plant girth (3.20) and minimum days to first flowering (24.29), first fruiting (35.33) and days to maturity (63.33) was recorded in T5 . Equally maximum numbers of fruits per plant (72.07), fruit length (5.66 cm), fruit diameter (4.77 cm), fruit weight (80.06 g), yield per plant (4.77 kg) and fruit yield per ha (562.57 q) was recorded in T5. In quality traits also this treatment (T5 ) exhibited more shelf life (16.63 days), the maximum T.S.S (5.25 %), acidity (0.42 %), reducing (1.68 %), non-reducing (2.00 %), total sugar (3.63 %) and ascorbic acid content (19.94 mg). This treatment had the maximum net return (` 138528 ha-1) and B:C Ratio 3.08 : 1 out all other treatments than over control.
Key words: Growth, micronutrients, quality, tomato, yield
Storage performance of horticultural crops in zero energy cool chamber: A case study in Mizoram, India
J. Nongthombam,K. Joshikumar, S. Kumar, C. Lairenjam, G. Oinam, L. Nongmaithem, S. Chowdhury and K.P. Chaudhary
Post-harvest loss is one of the major problems faced by the farmers which are further amplified in the hilly region owing to the lack of suitable on-farm storage facilities and remote locations. Zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) is one such technique which increases the shelf life of crops by lowering the temperature and increasing the relative humidity (RH). A comparative study was conducted for the storage of broccoli, tomato, passion fruit and banana inside the ZECC and under ambient condition during different harvesting months viz. January, March, April and August to evaluate their shelf life under the influence of changes in temperature, RH and physiological loss in weight (PLW) over the storage period. The shelf life of these crops was increased from nearly 7 days to 12, 11, 12 and 20 days respectively. An average reduction in temperature (°C) from 16.85-11.98, 16.47-12.05, 20.94 -16.49 and 25.67-20.67, respectively with increase in RH (%) from 81.92-94.17, 63.36-77.27, 53.75-67.67 and 80.67-93.67 was recorded inside the ZECC and ambient condition respectively. The highest PLW inside ZECC was observed in passion fruit (5.15 %) and lowest in banana while broccoli recorded highest PLW (16.19 %) under ambient condition which is lowered to only 4.51 per cent inside ZECC.
Key words: Fruit crops, physiological loss, relative humidity, shelf-life, temperature
K.K. Sri, A. Choudhury, R. Singh, S.M. Feroze and S. Chiphang
The present study was designed to assess the economies of cabbage production in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. As the cabbage crop is grown in two seasons namely zaid and winter, therefore primary data were collected for both the seasons. A sample of 80 cabbage growers was selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the production of cabbage in both zaid and winter season were found to be profitable but the profit margin of winter season was higher to that of zaid season. The estimates of Cobb-Douglas production function indicated that per hectare gross returns were significantly influenced by cost of seeds, fertilizers and insecticides. Therefore, significant variable inputs must be taken care by the cabbage growers as well as researcher for enhancing the productivity of cabbage. Intervention of small machinery must be tapped to reduce the cost of production of cabbage in the study area.
Key words : Cabbage, Cobb-Douglas, feasibility analysis, winter, zaid
R.C. Misra, D.R. Pani and S.P. Ahlawat
Hibiscus Linn., a quite large genus of family Malvaceae, is mainly distributed in the warm temperate, tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The members of the genus are popular not only as ornamental, medicinal, fibre and culinary purposes, but also for religious traditions. During the exploration mission and germplasm collection in parts of Odisha, the occurrence of Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f., a wild crop relative, used as coarse fibre, was reported from Ganjam and Kalahandi districts of Odisha. After critical review on its distribution, its natural occurrence was found to be a new distributional record to the flora of the state. A detailed diagnostic description, ecology, germplasm collected and conserved and the photographs of the species were provided for easy identification and further utilization
Key words: Fibre crop, Hibiscus panduriformis, new plant record, Odisha, seed germplasm
N.C. Palei, B.P. Rath and K. Singh
A camera trap survey was conducted for terrestrial mammals in Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary from November to December 2018. Camera traps were deployed at 35 locations comprising of one pair camera trap which accumulated data over 875 camera trap-days. A total of 2650 photographs were captured out of which 632 photographs of mammals belonging to 12 families and 22 species were recorded. The leopard Panthera pardus was the most frequently captured species and had high relative abundance (RAI =7.31) among the other carnivore species and the Ruddy mongoose, Herpestes smithii (RAI =0.69) were represented by a relatively low abundance. Frequency of various anthropogenic activities related to movement of livestock, feral dogs and human traffic accounted for maximum photo capture and found to be negatively correlated with mammalian species. This result highlighted the fact that all mammalian species presence occurred in the sanctuary and were confirmed by the photographs captured, which resulted in knowing the distribution pattern of the species. In the study, assessing mammalian prey relative abundance and distribution are required to further manage the threatened and endangered species of the sanctuary.
Key words : Camera trap, livestock pressure, mammalian diversity, relative abundance index, Sunabeda
Arun A. Sha, R. Bakde and Adhithyan N.K.
An adult male sloth bear of ten years of age was rescued by Karnataka Forests Department, Bellary division was shifted to Wildlife SOS, Bear Rehabilitation Centre with a severely injured left hind limb severed at the level of metatarsals. The paw was putrefied with purulent exudation and loosely hanging broken metatarsals. After immobilizing the bear with medetomidine-ketamine at 0.05 mg kg-1 and 3 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively the wound edges were debrided for apposition. Necrotic tissues and three remaining metatarsals were removed and four stay sutures were placed. Suturing was accomplished with 2-0 absorbable sutures and the wound was dressed with 5 % povidone iodine and vet wrap. The wound was secured with a fluid bottle, tied to the paw of the sloth bear to prevent the soiling of the wound. Therapeutic management was done using long acting antibiotics like Benzathine penicillin @ 40,000 IU kg-1 q 7 days and Enrofloxacin @ 5 mg kg-1 q 72 hour for 20 days. Administration of fluids at the rate of 50 ml kg1 and opioid analgesics (Tramadol @ 5 mg kg-1) was done at the time of surgery. Thereafter, regular dressing was done with collagen silver sulphadiazine cream and antiseptic powder. Analgesia was achieved by oral supplementation with gabapentin @ 2 g for 10 days. Also, for the prevention of decubitus ulcers, a wooden plank was placed in the bear enclosure. After continuous dressing for 60 days the wound showed remarkable healing. Partial amputations and post-operative management are often lifesaving human interventions that become necessary in human-animal conflict zones.
Key words: Amputation, gabapentin, sloth bear, snare trap
Vegetative propagation of Guggul [Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhan.]: A commercially important and threatened medicinal plant species
L.K. Behera, A.A. Mehta, C.A. Dholariya, M. Sukhadiya, R.P. Gunaga and S.M. Patel
Vegetative propagation of Commiphora wightii through semi-hardwood branch cuttings was undertaken in the experimental nursery of College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Total five treatments of different concentration of IBA (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) in three repetitions were undertaken with completely randomised design. Maximum establishment of 90 per cent with significantly superior number of leaves (7.2) and branches (3.64) along with the maximum length of shoot, length of root and number of roots (91.26 cm, 21.93 cm and 8.16, respectively) were recorded in semi-hardwood branch cuttings of C. wightii treated with IBA@1000 ppm as compared to other treatments. Moreover, cuttings treated with 1000 ppm IBA exhibited increase in length of shoot, number of leaves per plant, number of branches, length of root and number of roots per plant of 86.97%, 188%, 30.94%, 74.32% and 226.4%, respectively as compared to the control. Thus, C. wightii can be propagated by using its semi-hardwood cuttings treated with 1000 ppm IBA for production of quality planting materials.
Key words: Branch cuttings, Commiphora wightii, guggul, IBA, vegetative propagation
B.R. Samantaray, S.K. Bhuyan and J. Bhuyan
The study investigated the growth and economic performance of Vietnam koi (Anabas cobojius) using biofloc culture technique in farmers’ field. The experiment was carried out in two number of tarpaulin (650 GSM) biofloc tanks of with 4 meter diameter, 1.3 meter height. The stocking density of each tank was @5000 numbers per 8000 liters with initial average weight of each as 5.1 g with the depth of water between 90-100 cm. For better growth performance and to avoid the growth disparity the fishes were separated based on size and kept in separate tanks as bigger and smaller between the tanks every month. The feeding rate was gradually reduced from 2% to 0.05% of body weight from June 2019 to November 2019 and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found to be 0.59. The specific growth rate (SGR;%) was achieved the highest in the month June (3.27) and the lowest in the month of November (0.44). Based on the performance evaluation a total yield of 872 kg (Tank-1@460 kg per 8000 liter and Tank-2 @412 kg per 8000 liter) of Vietnam Koi (A. cobojius) was harvested from both the cultured biofloc tanks within a period of six months. The net profit was of Rs. 21,020.00 (including infrastructure cost and of Rs. 63,020.00 (excluding infrastructure cost) with B:C ratio of 1.16 and 1.70 respectively.
Key words: Anabas cobojius, biofloc technology, performance, SWOT
Mini-sprinkler irrigation uniformity and crop water productivity of summer clusterbean in Indian arid zone
R.K. Singh and H.M. Meena
Judicious use of water resources has always been a focal point in agriculture sector and it has gained further importance under the changing climatic scenario. So, the use of pressurized irrigation systems has become an inevitable option for enhancing the water use efficiency. The field study was conducted for determination of actual water balance components for summer clusterbean in the Research Farm of ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur during the summer of 2015-17 through minilysimetric approach, where irrigation water was delivered through mini-sprinklers. Under this study, the coefficient of uniformity (Cu ) and distribution uniformity (Du ) of the mini-sprinkler system were evaluated. Water was applied to the crop through mini-sprinklers at four irrigation levels of I1oo, I80, I 60 and I40%, when the cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) attained a value of 50 ± 5 mm. Twin nozzle mini-sprinklers of Model Monsoon S-10 with nozzle size 2.5 × 1.5 mm were used in the field to irrigate the area. For each irrigation level, six sprinklers were used, out of those, 2 sprinklers were fixed at 180° (middle of the plot) and four at 90° (corner of the plot) and the experiment was conducted at operating pressure of 2.0 kg cm-2. Christiansen equation was used for determining the coefficient of uniformity for different irrigation levels and it was found to be 84.22, 84.30, 84.27 and 83.99%, while distribution uniformity was calculated to be 74.12, 74.70, 72.90 and 72.39% at I1oo, I80, I60 and I40% irrigation levels. Both Cu and Du coefficients give complementary information. Cu was consistently found higher than Du . Water productivity was found the highest (0.35 kg m-3) at the irrigation level of 80% CPE.
Key words: Coefficient of uniformity, irrigation uniformity, mini-sprinkler, water productivity
Lala I.P. Ray, B.C. Mal and P.K. Panigrahi
The cost of pumping takes a major share under an irrigated agriculture condition, similarly for perennial aquacultural practices the importance of assured water cannot be ruled out. The procedure for determination of the cost of pumping is a cumbersome job. In this paper, the various steps involving the development of a shallow or deep tubewell and determination of unit cost of pumping under a sub-humid and sub-temporal condition of eastern India are discussed. Considering the electricity charge same as that of agricultural use, cost of pumping one cubic meter of tubewell water was estimated to be ` 1.93 or say ` 2.00.
Key words: Aquacultural practices, irrigated agriculture, sub-humid condition, tubewell water, unit cost
S. M. Roy and A. Biswas
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important water quality parameters and its control is also vital in aquaculture water treatment practices. Dropdown of DO creates several problems for the aquatic life, like respiration, growth etc. even leading to deaths. Therefore, artificial aeration is necessary to maintain adequate DO level in the water bodies under culture practice. Artificial aeration system is presently the most common and effective way of increasing DO concentrations in aquaculture or general water treatment process. Artificial aerator has also added advantage of better mixing, breaking of stratifications of water quality parameters (DO, temperature, salinity, nutrient, etc.) and removal of various harmful gases. A comparative performance and features of various aerators used in aquaculture or general water treatment have been reviewed in this paper. This study demonstrates the requirements, several types and effective use of aeration practices for the betterment of aquaculture water treatment practices.
Keywords: Aerator, dissolved oxygen, water quality