T.R. Das, S.K. Pradhan and O.N. Singh
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the destructive diseases of rice that causes a significant yield loss. The development and use of resistant genotypes against this disease are the most effective, eco-friendly, and economic ways to control production loss. The xa5 is an important recessive bacterial blight resistant gene which is effective and important in rice breeding programs. In present study, BC1F1 populations of the cross between CRMAS-2232-85 (the donor parent of xa5 gene) and Jalamagna (the recurrent parent) were screened for the bacterial blight resistant gene xa5 by using molecular markers. Based on the amplification of resistance-specific bands, twentyseven lines out of forty-six BC1F1 lines showed the presence of the xa5 resistance gene. These gene introgression lines can be further utilized in the breeding programme for the development of bacterial blight resistant cultivars with higher yield potential which can be helpful to meet the rice production and productivity targets.
Key words: Bacterial blight resistance, marker-assisted selection, rice, xa5, Xoo
Effect of row spacing and time of earthing up on vegetative and reproductive attributes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Arbab village of Qarabagh district, Ghazni, Afghanistan
M.O. Darwiash, H. Hamayoun and S. Ghafari
Field experiment was conducted to examine the consequence of intra-row spacing and time of earthingup on vegetative and yield attributes of potato var. (Kufri Chandramukhi). Four intra-row spacing: 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm and four times of earthing-up: At 15, 30, 45 days after plant rise and no earthing were combined in a 4×4 factorial randomized complete block design. Intra row spacing significantly affected all the vegetative parameters, days to 50% flowering and maturity, plant-height and spread, stem diameter and leaf area, yield parameters tuber number, and tuber yield. Highest marketable tuber yield of 23.54 t ha-1 was produced at 40 cm intra-row spacing. The effect of time of earthing-up was found significant on all vegetative parameters like days to 50% flowering and maturity, plant height, spread, stem diameter, leaf area, stem number yield parameters, tuber number, total and marketable tuber yield. Earthing up at 15 days after plant emergence showed superior performance in most vegetative and yield parameters. Therefore, 40 cm intra-row spacing and earthing-up at 15 days after plant emergence is recommended for higher marketable yield of potato.
Key words: Intra-row spacing, Kufri Chandramukhi, time of earthing-up, yield
M. Rajavardhan, B. Sethi and R. Singh
In Meghalaya, potato is grown twice a year. The climate of the state is congenial for the potato production throughout the year. The present paper demonstrated the potato production, disposal and its price spread of major channels in the selected markets. Economic benefit point of view the channel-III which is direct channel has been observed beneficial but practically it is not advisable; hence, the channel-II has been found next to the direct channel through which net price received by potato grower has been observed higher than that of others whereas channel-I has been preferred because the maximum produce has been disposed. Therefore, channel-I needs to be strengthened through technological intervention like value addition in the crop. Further, the price spread analysis is an insight for improvement in the market for unscrupulous practices adopted by different intermediaries in the potato market.
Key words : Meghalaya, potato, supply, value addition
R. Kamal and F. Nasiri
The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding health and food safety among female students, Ghazni University, Ghazni, Afghanistan and to explore the association between their socio-demographic and academic characteristics. This analytical study was performed on 150 female undergraduate students of Ghazni University by using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic information, awareness and attitude towards health and food safety. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS-23. The results showed that the students had medium level of knowledge, attitude and practices toward food hygiene, sanitation and food contamination related to food safety. Also result showed over 37% of students lack the knowledge about refrigerator storage and uses. On the other hand, over the 69% of students had good knowledge on food safety. And more than 18% had lack of food safety attitude in raw food keeping, food reheating and food poisoning. The overall KAP percentage score were 1.88±0.65 respectively. In general, this paper indicates the significance of female student’s knowledge and attitude about food safety. Continuous education and training should be organized to strengthen female student’s knowledge in areas which seem to be deficient.
Key words : Attitudes, female students, Ghazni University, knowledge, practices
Effect of extraction conditions on anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging activities of Paederia foetida L.
M.R. Senapati and P.C. Behera
Extraction conditions are the major concern to enhance the efficiency in order to obtain the highest yields of phenolic compounds from natural resources which imparts antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities. The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of four extracting solvents (80% methanol, 80% acetone, 50% acetone and their mixture) and two extraction techniques (cold percolation and microwave assisted extraction) on the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activities of extracts of Paederia foetida. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic (2.22-3.98 mg GAE per gram of sample), total flavonoid (0.26-1.05 mg of rutin equnivalent per gram of sample), total antioxidant (1394.23-3143.44 μM ascorbic acid equnivalent per gram of sample), FRAP (4.60-9.53 × 103 μM of ascorbic acid equnivalent per gram of sample), reducing power (180.23- 1776.80 μM ascorbic acid equnivalent per gram of sample). On the other hand, extracts of the plant under different extraction regimen was having superoxide radical scavenging activity (5.74-70.55%), scavenging of nitric oxide (34.25-73.16%), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (30.46-41.36%) and inhibition of lipid per oxidation (23.58-41.45%). From our study it was revealed that higher content of total phenolics, total flavonoid, antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities were obtained in the extracts prepared by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) as compared to the respective cold percolation (CP) method of extraction by using four different extracting solvents
Key words : Antioxidant, cold percolation, free radical scavenging activity, microwave assisted extraction, total flavonoids, total phenolics
A. Dey, P. Khan, S. Barik, A.K. Mishra and P. Sundi
This survey was conducted to analyse the diversity of aquatic fauna at Suleipat reservoir. The distribution and diversity of aquatic fauna, and physical, parameters of Suleipat reservoir were studied in the latitude and longitude of 22.122541° N and 86.237750° E. In the study area 4 sites were sampled. Fauna and water variables were randomly collected 8-10 times. This study focused the diverse assemblage of both vertebrate and invertebrate indices. Overall, 87 species were recorded from the study site. Among the aquatic fauna collected from the reservoir, the order Odonata and Agnatha were the most dominant orders varies impressive numbers. The highest Shimpson and Shannon index of diversity was 0.64325 and 1.382375, and the evenness index was 0.671875. The high species diversity and evenness in all the sites indicated a good quality of water. There was no back record found about the aquatic diversity of Suleipat reservoir near Bareservoirpahar, Rairangpur forest division in Mayurbhanj district, hence this study was undertaken.
Key words : Aquatic fauna, diversity, invertebrate, Suleipat reservoir
Afghanistan has around 5,000 plant species out of which 25-30% are endemic. Some of the shrubs in Afghanistan are unique with medicinal and industrial properties and unfortunately every year we loss shrubs in a huge amount by people (uprooting and cutting), over grazing and soil erosion. In Ghazni University campus different species of shrubs are existed but any ecological studies have not been done yet about these shrubs. Unfortunately, less information exists about shrubs in Ghazni province and I kindly recommend for working in this area for enrichment our flora and biodiversity. These seven shrub species are selected in case of popularization and usefulness in the site. The objectives of this ecological research are; population density, frequency and abundance of seven most popular shrubs in Ghazni University campus by quadrat method for the first time. This research can be very useful in future as a start point. In this shrub land some of the shrubs are dense and abundant and some are vice versa in case of more traditional uses (i.e., Peganum harmala). Unlike past, the reasons for high density, abundance, and frequency of some shrubs in the campus are artificial wall of the Ghazni University which built in 2011 and prohibition from uprooting by local people, grazing by herd of nomads and awareness of people. Soil erosion caused to loss shrubs species but there are not data about past situation of populations to compare with present time. This study can be useful for lecturers, students and pharmaceutical concerns in Ghazni University.
Key words : Abundance, density, frequency, Ghazni University, quadrat method and shrubs
P. Khan, S. Barik,A. Dey and S. Giri
The present study reveals the traditional knowledge of people in utilizing plants for their ethno-botanical potential. Hakims, Vaidyas, and locally available unrecorded information from tribal peoples of three panchayats under Baripada forest division, Mayurbhanj district of Odisha., were recorded. An extensive field survey of the entire area of Saragchhida, Chandua, and Nandana was made and information from tribal peoples and local Vaidyas was collected. The ethno-botanical study was carried out during February – March 2021 to document the medicinal utility of plants by the practitioner. A list of 69 species of medicinal plants belonging to 66 genera and 41 families was made. A total of 58 species of dicotyledons and 11 species of monocotyledons were recorded from the whole study. The study explained the administration and indication with respect to different diseases, and injuries along with their vernacular names, botanical names, and parts used. The documented medicinal plants and the knowledge they acquired to cure the diseases like information on diarrhoea, jaundice, and headache, night fever, piles, etc. were provided.
Key words : Ethno-botanical study, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge
Joint forest management (JFM) in India is an initiative where people’s participation in forest management and resource utilization has been undertaken for last 3 decades. The policy frameworks laid in the late 1980s and the follow ups in policy matters were aimed at paving way for a mutual partnership between the government or the forest department and the local communities for a mutually beneficial forest management. Today despite its popularity and larger advantages, JFM in India is at disadvantage from a varied number of factors ranging from governance and policy challenges to socio economic problems in local communities. If these challenges are properly understood and addressed, people participation is still a sharp tool for efficient forest management and sustainable resource utilization. A systematic understanding and evaluation of these problems and evolution of adequate solutions can make JFM an effective tool in climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation by acting as a linchpin for REDD+ initiatives.
Key words : Forest policy, forestry, joint forest management, participatory forest management, rural participation
A comparative study on physiological plasma mineral mapping of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) in in-situ vis-a-vis semi captivity conditions
A.S. Arun, S.K. Bhat, P.M. Sidharth, P.S. Swain, L. Jose, N.K.S. Gowda and D.T. Pal
To determine if habitat influenced the physiological plasma mineral profiles in sloth bears, a study was conducted to establish the normal physiological plasma mineral profiles of free-ranging and semi-captive Indian sloth bears. Plasma samples from 28 sloth bears were analysed for their mineral concentrations. The concentration of microminerals (mg L-1) namely Zn, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu respectively were 1.56±0.90; 0.85±0.42; 3.85±1.11; 0.29±0.27; 0.45±0.01; 1.00±0.85; and macro minerals (mg dL-1) like Mg, Ca, Na, K, P were 2.06±0.72; 8.89±2.28; 42.3±5.96; 10.7±2.04; 23.2±3.55, respectively. It was found that plasma of free ranging sloth bears showed higher concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg, Na, K, whereas, samples of bears in semi captivity showed higher Co, Ca, P, and Cr levels, which signifies that free ranging animal have a choice over their feeding but in semi-captivity, it is controlled and man-made.
Key words : Free ranging, habitat, mineral profiles, semi-captivity, sloth bear
R. Lenka and C. Singh
This is the first kind study on diversity of butterfly assemblages found in Berhampur city of Ganjam district, Odisha, Eastern India. The present study was conducted from April, 2014 to July, 2017 by using standardized methods which was aimed to record butterfly species diversity, composition and distribution in different sites of Berhampur city. The species richness and abundance of butterfly fauna found in Berhampur were analysed to explain the ecological integrity of butterfly fauna of Berhampur. From this study, 31 butterfly species were added newly to the previously reported butterfly fauna of Ganjam district. Present study also revealed a total of 12202 individual butterflies of 55 species under five families. Out of which, 20 species (36.36%) belong to the Nymphalidae family, 10 species each (18.18%) to the Pieridae and Lycaenidae, nine species (16.36%) to the Papilionidae and six species (10.90%) to the Hesperiidae. Seven species viz. Common pierrot (Castalius rosimon), Crimson rose (Pachliopta hector), Gram blue (Euchrysops cnejus), Pea blue (Lampides boeticus), Common albatross (Appias albina), King crow (Euploea klugii) and Danaid eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus) falls under the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act), 1972. The study also emphasized the anthropogenic activities which are affecting the species composition. The present study will aid to the existing knowledge and will help in the conservation of butterfly diversity found in this region.
Key words : Abundance, butterfly, lepidoptera, occurrence, species diversity, urbanization
A. Singh, K. Puri and R. Joshi
The Indian subcontinent is the home to three species of pythons, the Reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus), the Indian python (Python molurus) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus). The Indian python is widely distributed in peninsular India; however, the Burmese python occurs in the Indo-Chinese sub region. In between the years 2010 and 2017, a total of 18 individuals of python were sighted and rescued in different parts of Uttarakhand State, which were all Burmese pythons. Recently, an individual of Burmese python was also recorded from the Meerut Forest Division in Uttar Pradesh State, which perhaps constitute first ever record of the distribution of Burmese python in parts of North-west India.
Key words : Burmese python, Meerut, North-west India, Uttarakhand
Ecological studies on wild carnivores and herbivores through camera trap in Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary,Odisha, India
N.C. Palei, B.P. Rath, A.K. Satpathy, S.N. Acharya and R.K. Mohalik
Survey was undertaken for large and medium-sized mammals in Hadgarh Wildlife sanctuary using 60 camera traps during 20th October 2020 to 15th November 2020. There were 2049 independent captures of 19 large and medium-sized mammal species, including herbivores (35.8%), carnivores (5.4%), omnivores (6.4%), birds (5.6%), human traffic (20.3%), and free-ranging feral dogs (7.6%) recorded from 60 camera trap station. Out of 2049 photographs captured, 977 photographs of mammals belong to 13 families. The spotted deer, Axis axis, was the most frequently captured species which represented high relative abundance (RAI =16.13) and the rusty spotted cats (RAI=0.13) were represented by a relatively low abundance. Frequency of various anthropogenic activities were captured; movement of human being 27.67, with location 75%, livestock (RAI=25.80), with location 91.67% and feral dogs 10.40, with locations 50% and found to be negatively correlated with mammalian relative abundance. During the study, anthropogenic pressure such as conversion of natural habitats, encroachment, hunting, cattle grazing, tourism and fishing were observed which must have affected the distribution of mammals in Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary. The current camera traps survey will give an insight to the researchers to help in formulating the management strategies for long-term conservation of mammalian species in Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in future.
Key words : Abundance index, anthropogenic pressure, camera trap photo, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, mammalian diversity
P. Bisht, A. Pathak and A. Mishra
Plants have been providing vital source of medicines since ages. Earlier these are used by communities in folk medicine and later accepted by conventional western medicine as their efficacy was established. Any pharmacological alteration caused by herbal substances to another prescription medication (diagnostic, therapeutic or other action of a drug) in or on the body is herb-drug interaction. For the treatment of major ailments herbs are often administered concomitantly with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential for herb–drug interactions. Herb might alter the effects of co-administered drugs and the consequences can be beneficial, undesirable or harmful effects. Herbal medicines are mixtures of more than one active ingredient. The multitude of pharmacologically active compounds obviously increases the likelihood of interactions. As synthetic drug usually contains single chemical entity, the chance of herb–drug interactions is theoretically higher than drug–drug interactions. Interactions between herbs and drugs may alter the pharmacological or toxicological effects of either components. Synergistic effects may disturb the dosing of long-term medications. Herbal medicines are abundant: the lack of reports of adverse events and interactions possibly reflects a combination of underreporting and the benign nature of most herbs used. This article provides brief idea about practitioner can change the current situation and apply their knowledge in providing health information about herb-drug interaction.
Key words : Drug, herbal medicine, interaction, pharmacological effect