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Mutagenic effects of gamma-rays and EMS on chromosomes and pollen sterility in greengram

T.R. Das and B. Baisakh


To determine the potency of different doses of physical and chemical mutagens and deduce an optimum dose, cytological analysis for induced chromosomal variation is considered an accurate index in mutation breeding. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to estimate the relative frequency and spectrum of meiotic chromosomal abnormalities at various stages of cell division using gamma-rays, Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), and their combination treatments in the M1 generation of greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) varieties Sujata and OBGG-52. The analysis revealed a wide range of induced meiotic chromosomal abnormalities like univalents, multivalents, chromosome stickiness, laggards, bridges, and micronuclei by different mutagen doses. In general, the meiotic chromosomal abnormalities increased along with the increase in concentration in mutagens in both varieties. However, the induction of meiotic aberrations was observed to be higher in gamma rays treatments, suggesting that gamma rays could be more effective in inducing additional variability than EMS, in greengram. It was observed that the combined treatments induced meiotic abnormalities at a higher frequency as compared to individual treatments of gamma rays and EMS. Comparative estimation of induced chromosomal abnormalities suggested higher mutagenic sensitivity of var. Sujata than the var. OBGG-52 towards the single mutagenic treatments used whereas in combined treatment of moderate doses OBGG-52 expressed higher mutagenic sensitivity than Sujata. The pollen sterility observed in mutagenic treatments may be due to the induced mutation in chromosomes. A positive and significant correlation between induced chromosomal abnormality and pollen sterility was observed in both varieties.

Key words: Chromosomes, EMS, gamma-rays, greengram, induced mutation, pollen sterility

Evaluation of bio-efficacy of pyroxsulam for weed control in wheat

Y.K. Ziar, M.S. Bhullar and T. Kaur


A field study was conducted to investigate the bio-efficacy of pyroxsulam 4.5% OD against weeds in wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were pyroxsulam 4.5% OD at 12, 15 and 18 g a.i. ha-1 was applied with and without polyglycol, sulfosulfuron at 25 g a.i. ha-1, metsulfuron at 4 g a.i. ha-1, pyroxsulam 4.5% OD at 36 g a.i. ha-1 with and without polyglycol was evaluated for residue studies, and pyroxsulam 4.5% OD at 18 g a.i. ha-1 with polyglycol was evaluated for compatibility with chlorpyriphos, carbendazim and urea. Among these treatments, pyroxsulam 4.5% OD with polyglycol at 15 or 18 g a.i. ha-1 (both differ significantly) recorded effective control of grasses and broadleaf weeds and recorded the highest wheat grain yield during both the years. It was safe for use in wheat and for succeeding rice crop.

Key words: Metsulfuron, polyglycol, pyroxsulam, sulfosulfuron, weeds, wheat

Impact of farmers’ field school on fertilizers and pesticide usage in paddy cultivation

A. Manoj


The present study was conducted in united Andhra Pradesh with the objective to find out the impact of integrated crop management Farmers’ Field School (FFS) on fertilizers and pesticide usage. A total of three districts were selected purposively from three regions of united Andhra Pradesh. Respondents were selected through simple random sampling procedure. The total sample size was 240 comprising 120 FFS farmers and 120 non-FFS farmers. The Double Difference method was used by comparing change in performance to before and after the programme for FFS farmers to the change in performance over the same period for non-FFS farmers unaffected by the programme. The study revealed that a high level of over-dose of chemical fertilizers and pesticides which was reduced to the recommended level through the intervention of FFS methodology among FFS farmers. None of the famers were found to apply recommended dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, during pre -FFS period. Whereas, as a result of farmers field schools during post-FFS period, majority of FFS farmers had applied recommended dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers along with the increase in application of farm yard manure (FYM). Similar results were found in number of pesticide spray applications. During pre-FFS period the rate of application was almost equal among FFS farmers (8.62 sprays) and non-FFS farmers (8.48 sprays). Whereas, during post-FFS period, the number of sprays were reduced to 5.81 among FFS farmers as against 8.25 sprays in case of non-FFS farmers. The results in turn helped the FFS farmers to reduce the expenditure incurred on fertilizers and pesticides (Rs.17610 ha-1) as compared to non-FFS farmers (Rs.21473 ha-1).

Key words: Farmers’ field school, fertilizer, impact, integrated crop management, pesticide

Effect of herbicides on weed control and grain yield of wheat in Kabul, Afghanistan

N.M. Inqilaabi and A.Y. Ahmadi


The field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, Agronomy Department of Kabul University, Kabul, Afghanistan, to study the efficacy of two different herbicides 2, 4-D and MCPA for weed control and grain yield of wheat during 2019-20. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four treatments such as weed free, weedy check, 2,4-D @1 kg ha-1 and MCPA@ 1 kg ha-1, replicated five times. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam with low organic matter and available nitrogen, medium in available potassium, but low in available phosphorus. Soil pH and EC were 8.2 and 0.16 dSm-1, respectively. 2, 4-D herbicide was applied at tillering (3-5 leaves) stage, whereas, the MCPA herbicide was also applied at tillering (3-5 leaves) stage. Urea granules (46% N) and DAP (18% N, 46% P2 O5 ) were used for supplying 120 kg N and 60 kg P2 O5 ha-1. One third N and full dose of P2 O5 were applied as plough sole placement before sowing. The urea granules (46% N) were applied as 1/3 at the jointing stage and remaining 1/3 at the anthesis stage. The seeds of wheat cultivar Kabul 013 were sown in furrows spaced at 25 cm with the help of had seed drill at the rate of 110 kg seed ha-1 on 12th November in the year 2019. Five irrigations were given, the first irrigation was performed after sowing, second irrigation was conducted 20 days after the first irrigation, in order to prevent crust establishment, third at booting stage, fourth at flowering stage, and final irrigation at the soft dough stage, with the help of tube well, coinciding with the critical stages of the growth of wheat crop. Results revealed that 2, 4-D was effective to control weed population and produced a higher number of effective tillers, 1000 grain weight and enhanced the yield up to 43.1% over weedy check.

Key words: Grain yield, herbicides, weed control efficiency, weed density and biomass

Effect of plant density and drip emitters on yield parameters in banana cv. Grand Naine

A.W. Amiri, M.Y. Amini, A.S. Alur, M. Hegde, G.S.K. Swamy and H. Kulapati


An experiment was conducted during 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Horticultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru to study the effect of varied plant densities and different placement of drip emitters on yield, post-harvest and quality parameters in banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment was laid out in factorial RCBD design with three varied plant densities S1 (1.5 × 1.5 m), S2 (1.8 × 1.8 m) and S3 (2 × 2 m) and four different placement of emitters E1 (placement of emitters at plain), E2 (placement of emitters at 40 cm), E3 (placement of emitters at 50 cm) and E4 (placement of emitters at 60 cm) with three replications. The results of the experiment clearly indicated that the highest yield (79.37, 86.48 tons ha-1) was registered in treatment (S1, E2 respectively) and the lowest yield (51.35, 54.33 tons ha-1) was observed in treatment (S3, E1 respectively) in main crop. Postharvest parameters like pulp weight (82.15 g, 104.53 g), pulp to peel ratio (1.83, 2.50) and shelf life (8.19, 8.52 days) was registered highest and peel weight was found lowest (46.00 g, 42.04 g) in treatment (S3, E2 respectively) in main crop. The highest quality parameters viz., total sugar (19.56, 19.54 %), reducing sugar (16.96, 16.59 %), non-reducing sugar (2.70, 2.75 %) and total soluble solid (23.11, 23.37 o Brix) was recorded highest in treatment (S3, E2 respectively) in main crop. The similar trend of post-harvest and quality parameters was found in ratoon crop also. However, the lowest postharvest and quality parameter was observed in treatment (S1, E1) in plant and ratoon crop respectively.

Key words: : cv. Grand Naine, emitters, plant density, post-harvest

Note on Ocimum africanum Lour.: New distributional record of wild basil for Odisha and central India

R.C. Misra, A.P. Raina and S.P. Ahlawat


Ocimum Linn. (Lamiaceae) is a large and diversified genus of economically useful and medicinal and aromatic importance and associated with Indian cultural traditions. It is highly valued for its therapeutic properties in indigenous as well as modern pharmacological system. During the exploration mission for germplasm collection in parts of Odisha and Northeast India, the natural occurrence of Ocimum africanum (syn. O. citriodorum Vis.), a natural hybrid and alien to the Indian flora, was explored from parts of Odisha, Tripura and Manipur. After critical assessment of published literature on distribution, its natural occurrence is found to be a new species record for the flora of Odisha extending to central India. The present report deals with its taxonomic description, ecology, ethno-botany and information on biochemical analysis of essential oil for easy identification and further economic utilization.

Key words: Basil, central India, germplasm collection, new species record, Ocimum africanum, Odisha

Anti-oxidative effect of polyphenols of Litsea glutinosa leaf: An in-vitro assay

P. C. Behera, M.R. Senapati and D.R. Parida


The study aims at extracting total phenolic content from leaf of Litsea glutinosa in different solvent medium under the microwave-assisted extraction system and assessment of its antioxidative activity. Solvents of extraction were classified into 7 groups such as Gr-A (100% methanol), Gr-B (100% deionized water), Gr-C (methanol: water: acetic acid in 70:25:05 v/v), Gr-D (ethyl acetate: methanol: water in 60:30:10 v/v), Gr-E (100% acetone), Gr-F (acetone: water: acetic acid in 90: 9.5: 0.5 v/v) and Gr-G (100% ethanol).Total polyphenols were quantitatively estimated following standard protocol. Organic and aqueous solvent mixture groups of Gr-C, D, and F exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher concentrations of total polyphenols. Total and individual anti-oxidative activities were analyzed in the solvent group having the highest amount of total phenolics. The polyphenols extracted in Gr-D exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities (p<0.01) in phospho- molybdenum and reducing power method than the solvents at Gr-C and F. The polyphenols extracted in the Gr-C solvent depicted significantly higher antioxidative activities (p<0.01) in the FRAP method followed by Gr-D and F. Also leaf extract in Gr-D solvent exhibited significantly higher superoxide (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities (p<0.01) followed by Gr-C and F. On the other hand, polyphenols extracted in Gr-F exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher hydroxy radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay followed by Gr-C and D. The present study reflects that the plant derived phyto-chemicals can be better extracted through organic and aqueous mixture solvents than individual one with potent anti-oxidative activity.

Key words: : Antioxidant, FRAP, free radical scavenging activity, microwave-assisted extraction, total phenolics

Symbiotic relationship between sea pen and porcelain crab: Art of living in marine ecosystem

S.N. Sethi, N.R. Murthy, A.P. Nayak, S.K. Patra and M.K. Tripathy


Mutualistic symbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature. In this relationship, the porcelain crab is benefitting from the sea pen by being protected from potentially harmful predators (tiger shark, white tip reef shark, hammerhead shark, blacktip reef shark, green hump head parrotfish, napoleon wrasse and the cuttlefish) and it has a place to live. On the other hand, the sea pen is benefitting by getting nutrients from the Porcelain crab that it would not normally get by itself. Nutrients such as ammonia, sulphur and phosphorus are excreted by the porcelain crab are used by sea pen. The symbiotic relationship between Porcelain crabs and sea pens is a well-known example of mutualism in the sea. Among marine organisms, marine sessile invertebrates are rich sources for obtaining bioactive natural molecules. A majority of the last decade studies about sessile invertebrate Pennatulacea (Class- Anthozoa) focused on the potential of Pennatulacea derived bioactive molecules in treating neoplasm. Terpenoids are organic compounds extracted from Octocoralina, a subclass of Anthozoa, which demonstrate anti-cancer effects. Terpenoids are further classified to Hemiterpenes, Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenoids, Diterpenoids, Sesterterpenes, Triterpenoids, Tetraterpenoids, and Polyterpenoid; Sarcophine (C20H28O3 ), as a Diterpene with high anti-tumour activity

Key words: Bioactive compounds, mutualistic symbiosis, porcelain crab, sea pen

Avifaunal diversity of Badrama Wildlife Sanctuary, Bamra, Odisha, Indi

N.C. Palei, B.P. Ratha and P.S. Mallik


The study on bird diversity of Badrama Wildlife Sanctuary of Bamra, Odisha was carried out between August 2021 to March 2022. During the study period, a total of 171 species of birds belonging to 56 families were recorded. Out of 171 species a total 85.38% (n=146) species resident birds, 12.28% (n=21) species winter migrants, 2.34% (n=4) species summer migrants were recorded in the study area. According to the frequency of sighting of birds recorded in the study area, 81 species (47.37%) were common, 52 species (30.41%) were uncommon, 25 species (14.62%) were rare and 13 species (7.6%) were occasional were reported in Badrama Wildlife Sanctuary

Key words: Abundance, Badrama Wildlife Sanctuary, birds, checklist, migratory bird, Odisha

A preliminary study of avifaunal diversity in and around Govt.(Auto.) College, Angul, Odisha, India

M. Bagha and S. Sahoo


The present study was carried out between mid-December 2019 to November 2020 in and around Government Autonomous College, Angul, Odisha. Regular field survey was carried out by fixed route and direct observation method, which revealed a total of 46 bird species belonging to 40 genera, 13 orders and 26 families. Out of all the species, 28 species (60.87%) were common, 6 species (13.04%) were locally common, 8 species (17.39%) were uncommon and 4 species (8.70%) were rare. According to the residential status of bird community found in this area, 34 bird species (73.91%) were resident, 10 species (21.74%) were residential local migrants and only 2 species (4.35%) were residential winter migrants. Direct human intervention is one of the major factors affecting the campus avifaunal diversity which can be controlled by maintaining the campus environment and creating constant awareness among students and staffs

Key words: Avifauna, campus biodiversity, direct observation method, habitat, species diversity

Surgical treatment of baculum fracture in sloth bear (Melursus ursinus): A case report

A. Sha. Arun, A.S. Virk and S.P. Patil


A rescued dancing male sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) neutered according to CZA norms at Wildlife SOS, Bannerghatta bear rescue center, aged around 24 years was noticed to exhibit frequent behavior of licking and biting of penile region. With the aid of radiographic examination, it was confirmed as a novel case of baculum fracture in the sloth bear. Radiographic examination revealed complete fracture of baculum at its anterior one third. Under general anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine in combination at a dose rate of 5 mg kg-1 and 2 mg kg-1, respectively, a surgical procedure was performed which involved removal of the anterior fractured portion of the bone without causing any damage to urethra. Utmost post-operative care was provided. After the completion of the surgical intervention, the bear was recovered and stopped exhibiting the abnormal behaviour of licking and biting.

Key words: Baculum fracture, sloth bear, surgical correction

Distribution of leopard cats in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India

S.R. Mishra and M. Mohan


In this study, the distribution patterns of leopard cats in Similipal Tiger Reserve using camera trap methods were studied. The leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis, is a common spread small cat in Asia which is mainly nocturnal and solitary in nature. A rapid camera trapping survey was conducted to study the distribution during 2016 in Similipal Tiger Reserve. During the survey, 156 nos of Leopard cats were captured covering both core and buffer division of Similipal Tiger Reserve. Maximum leopard cats were captured form Similipal core division (103) followed by Baripada division (36), Karanjia division(10) and Rairanagpur division(07). Similarly range wise maximum Leopard cats captured from Upper Barakamuda range(56%) followed by Jenabil range(17%), Pithabata range(10%), Chahala range(5%), Nawana South range(5%), National park range(4%) and Nawana north range(3%).

Key words: Camera trap, distribution, leopard cat, Similipal Tiger Reserve

Poultry farming in India : An overview

A. Pathak, A.M. Tripathi and T. Jahan


Poultry farming has traditionally been an important part of India’s livestock production system. In the previous four decades, India’s poultry production has evolved from an utterly unstructured and unscientific agricultural practice to a commercial production system with cutting-edge technology innovations. The Indian poultry business has evolved significantly as a result of the industry’s scientific approach and the government’s creation of an enabling environment. In terms of structural and management changes, poultry production is quite dynamic. In today’s corporate world, the sooner you can react to changing system requirements, the faster you can expand. However, longterm viability frequently necessitates reliance on other sectors, such as feed/ingredient inputs and processing facilities. Many reasons, including growing earnings and a fast expanding middle class, have contributed to the rise of the poultry business in India, as well as the advent of vertically integrated poultry farmers who have decreased consumer prices by decreasing production and marketing expenses. Integrated production, the move from live birds to chilled and frozen goods, and regulations that maintain supplies of competitively priced maize and soyabean are all important factors in India’s future poultry sector growth. Furthermore, disease surveillance, monitoring, and management will determine the sector’s fate.

Key words: Broiler farming, egg production, poultry farming

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