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Drip irrigation technology, originated from Odisha province of India : A review

P.K. Panda, R.K. Samantarai, D. Panda and T.R. Das


Water resources are becoming scarce day-by-day, reducing their availability at various levels throughout the world. The per capita per annum water availability of India has also reduced from 5177 m3 in 1951 to 1450 m3 in 2022. To ensure water security for all, the water use efficiency (WUE) must be increased in every field by reducing wastage. WUE is the single most measurable parameter, which indicates whether there is judicious use or wastage of water. For enhancing WUE scientific, efforts have been made in various parts of the world in different time spans. Evidence has suggested that first attempt in the direction of enhancing WUE was made in India during Satya Yuga. Mythological evidence and religious traditions have proved that first invention of drip irrigation was made by Odia people in the Odisha province of India during the same period.

Key words: Drip irrigation, India, Odisha, originated, water use efficiency


Poacher’s snare as threat to Indian  wildlife:A review

R. Kumar, Y. Pannerselvam, P. Deb, A. Sha. Arun and T.R. Sharp



A snare is one of the easiest but most destructive hunting methods. In Asia, snares are the most widely used method of hunting because they are cheap to produce and easy to set in large numbers. Wildlife SOS, in collaboration with the Karnataka Forest Department, has attended a total of 42 wildlife rescue calls of sloth bears and leopards entrapped in such illegal snares or traps during the period 2009 to 2019. The snare traps entangled around the hind quarter, leads to internal organ damage and a slow death even after the rescue. Leopards and bears may also suffer serious dental problems from biting the snares, which results in medical problems and the inability to return the rescued animal to the wild. Intensive awareness programs in and around the protected areas regarding this barbaric and primitive trapping tools would help in reducing or avoiding such incidents. Human-animal conflict has been present ever since the fragmentation of forests and increase of biotic pressures have brought wild animals closer to humans in a fierce competition for survival. The present review deals with incidences of sloth bear and leopard mortality or injury due to snare documented across various districts of Karnataka and few other states, this review provides vital information about snares’ threat to Indian wildlife. Based on content analysis of newspapers and news portals, we identified 446 incidents of wild animals caught in snare traps from January 2018 to October 2022. Most snare incidents involved wild boars, snakes, nilgai, Indian leopards, jackals and royal Bengal tigers. This review indicates large number of carnivore death as compared to both herbivore and omnivores. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices to proactive measures that ensure safety of wildlife.

Key words: Animal welfare, electrocution, extinction, poaching, wildlife trade.


Effect of straw mulch and irrigation frequency on yield and yield components of mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

S. Alipour, A.R. Salihy, S.H. Mozafari, S.R. Ghafari, and N. Ebrahimi



A field experiment was conducted at agricultural research farm of Agriculture faculty of Ghazni University in 2022. It was laid out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three levels of irrigation frequency as, irrigation interval at 5 (I05), 10 (I10) and 15 (I15) days; with straw mulch (SM) and non-straw mulch (NM) in three replications. The highest amount of grain yield (1102 kg ha-1) was obtained from 10-day irrigation interval with straw mulch (SMI10) followed by SMI15 (1064 kg ha-1) and SMI05 (1081 kg ha-1) treatments, respectively. While NMI15 treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced number of leaves (18 leaves per plant), leaf area (22 cm2 ), number of pods (15 pods per plant), 1000-seed weight (48 g), and grain yield (531 kg ha-1) than other treatments. In SMI10, SMI05, and
SMI15 treatments, the crop water stress coefficient (Ks) values were recorded as 0.93, 0.91, and 0.90, respectively. In conclusion, the highest mung bean performance was achieved under SMI10 and SMI15 treatments, and for achieving suitable yield of mung bean, 15-day irrigation interval with straw mulch is recommended.

Key words: Irrigation frequency, mulch, mung bean, yield, yield components.


Effect of nitrogen and sulfur applications on growth, chlorophyll content and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

A. Khalili, A. Ramesh and M.P. Sharma



The current investigation reports the effect of basal and splitting application of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, chlorophyll content and yield at R2 and R5
growth stages of soybean in kharif season during year 2018. A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, Indian Institute of Soybean Research, Indore, India under different 14 treatment combinations involving different doses of N (12.5, 25 and 50 kg ha-1) and S (12.5, 25 and 50 kg ha-1) as basal and split application at R2 growth stage of crop. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that the basal and split application of nitrogen and sulfur induces the improvement in plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, leaf area, no. of branches per plant, pod per plant, seed index and grain yield over control. Average highest plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, leaf area, no. of branches per plant, pod per plant, seed index and grains yield were recorded with the application of N25+25, S25+25 at R2 and R5 growth stages. Thus, it can be concluded that split application N and S (N25+25, S25+25) can be applied to achieve better growth and yield in soybean crop.

Key words: Chlorophyll content, growth, nitrogen, soybean, sulfur, yield


Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae): A new distributional species record for Odisha and Eastern India

R.C. Misra and P.K. Singh



The members of genus Malva L. (Malvaceae) are widely grown as ornamental plants due to their attractive appearance and few are edible as leafy vegetables and medicinal usage too. During the exploration for germplasm collection of minor leafy vegetable in parts of Odisha, the occurrence of an interesting plant
species of mallow viz. Malva sylvestris, found as a weed and used as leafy vegetable by locals was explored from western part of Odisha. On critical assessment of its distribution, its natural occurrence was found to be a new genus record for the flora of Odisha and new species record for Eastern India. A detailed taxonomic description on morphology along with field photographs and economic uses are provided for ease of identification and sustainable utilization.

Key words: Eastern India, germplasm collection, mallow, Malva sylvestris, new species record, Odisha.


Sensory evaluation and microbial analysis of gulkand under ambient storage)

S. Sarfarazi and L.N. Mahawer



An experiment was carried out at Post Harvest Lab, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan) to analyze sensory evaluation, hunter colour (L* values), non-enzymatic browningand microbial count of bourbon rose gulkand product at ambient storage. All sensory characters i.e., taste, flavour, texture, and overall acceptability showed decreasing trend, whereas fungal growth, bacterial growth and nonenzymatic browning showed increased trends at ambient storage duration. The C9 -Bourbon rose petals + sugar candy (1.0:2.0 ww-1) was found to be the best among all ingredient combinations with regard to non-enzymatic browning (0.70), lightness (L*) value (20.10) and no microbial and fungus growth, as well as attainment highest organoleptic score for taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability as compared to C11-Check I market product from Rajsamund (Khamnore), C12-Check II market product from Chittorgarh (Ghodakheda) and C1 -Bourbon rose petals + Sugar (1.0:1.25 ww-1- Check III) at 0 to 120 days ambient storage.

Key words: Bourbon rose, lightness, microbial count, non-enzymatic browning, sensory score.


Dump management in South Kaliapani chromite mines, Jajpur, Odisha, India

S.K. Samal, S.N. Mishra, R.K. Banchhor and A.K. Mishra



The South Kaliapani Chromite Mines of Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC Ltd.) Limited is in ultramafic complex in Sukinda valley of Jajpur District. The mine is connected through the nearest rail head at Jajpur- Keonjhar Road railway station on Howrah Chennai line of South-Eastern Railway. Huge quantity of overburden waste or mine spoil is generated in Chromite mines due to high ore to overbudern ratio having the maximum output of 14.55 Metric Tons of waste generated against 1.0 Metric Tons of ore. The waste having diverse chemical and mineralogical characteristics, is challenged with designing stable waste dumps up to 120 m high dumps with stable configuration. This article elucidates study of slope stability and results of implementation of control measures in designing and maintaining a safe slope of the overburden thereof in South Kaliapani Chromite Mines of OMC Ltd. Authors also recommend the management of active dumps, control measures at active dumps to avoid water accumulation, stabilization of inactive dumps through plantations and overall better dump monitoring.

Key words: Chrome ore, dump, overburden, slope stability


Distribution of honey badger (Mellivora capensis) in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

S.R. Mishra and H. Bisht



The distribution of Ratel or Honey Badger, Mellivora capensis, is poorly known within the Asian portion of its global range. Targeted camera-trapping produced the first known records of this species from Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR) in Odisha, India. During the exercise the tiger reserve was divided into different block. In the I block total 126 cameras were fixed within the four ranges. Similarly in the Block II total 187 cameras was fixed in seven ranges. In the Block III total 214 and Block IV 131 camera were fixed within the six ranges and four ranges respectively. Total nineteen ratels were captured from three divisions. Out of the three divisions, the highest number of ratels were captured in Kaptipada range of Baripada division (N =13) followed by Pithabata range (N=03), Chahala range (N=01), Nawana North (N=01) of Similipal core division and Manada range of Rairangpur division (N=01) only one ratel was captured. It shows that the maximum photos were captured in Buffer division of the Similipal Tiger Reserve.

Key words: Camera trap, distribution, honey badger, Similipal Tiger Reserve.


Diversity and abundance of butterfly in Kalyani Lake park, West Bengal, India: A reconnaissance

M.A.I. Mallicka and R. Malakar


Butterfly species are one of the most important biodiversity indicators of nature. Study was done in Kalyani Lake Park area from June 2022 to December 2022 on status, abundance, and diversity of butterfly species. In recent times local butterfly species survives under threat and their count decreases. The objective of that study was to know about the abundance and diversity of butterfly species in the selected study area, to analyze what measures should be taken for conservation approach. From the present study, a total number of 1328 butterfly species individuals are found from 5 families belong to 44 genus, 58 species. Among them family Nymphalidae consists of 18 species followed by Lycaenidae (17 species), Papilionidae (5 species), Pieridae (8 species), Hesperiidae (10 species) were recorded. out of these 58 species, 3 species recognized as rare and vary rare type; these species of butterfly species are immediately needed to be conserved. By following a simple step everyone can contribute to butterfly species conservation; implantation of saplings, keep the park clean. This study focuses to identify the threats for butterfly species and to contribute in conservation approach

Key words: Abundance, butterfly species, biodiversity, conservation, Kalyani Lake Park


Morphological and molecular identification and classification of passeriform birds in Kabul, Afghanistan

M.S. Arianmal, M. Aliabadian and H. Salari



It is thought that the Passeriformes order of bird has monophyletic origin. However, new studies show that many passerine families are not monophyletic in traditional classifications. A more complete understanding of Passeriform phylogeny is possible only by conducting extensive molecular studies. Therefore, this molecular study was conducted to evaluate the Passeriformes birds of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Samplings were collected from ten stations during three stages during the year 2019 and 2021 in Kabul province, including DehSabz, Bagrami, Sarubi, KhakJabar, Shekar Dara, Gol Dara, Paghman, Char Asiyab, Andrabi Road and Kafroshi. Totally 190 samples were taken using a mist net out of which only 110 samples were taken to the laboratory. After the morphological studies, it was identified by the identification key that all the species belong to the Passeriformes order belonging to 13 families, 23 genera and 35 species. After performing morphometry, the samples were transferred to the laboratory for molecular studies and DNA extraction and COX1 gene sequencing to identify the species in the tree drawn by Bayesian method which shows the position of genera and species within families and superfamilies. In this study, genus Passer with four species, genus Motacilla with one species, genus Carduelis with one species, genus Emberiza with six species and genus Serinus with one species were included in the super family Passeroidea. The genus Corvus with one species and the genus Lanius with one species were included in the Corvida clade. Two species of the genus Luscinia with one species of the genus Muscicapa and one species of the genus Acridotheres were included in the super family Muscicapoidea. Two species of the genus Hirundo, one species of the genus Phylloscopus, one species of the genus Riparia, one species of the genus Sitta, one species of the genus Sylvia and one species of the genus Eremophila were included in the super family Sylvioidea.

Key words: COX1 gene, Kabul, molecular classification, passeriformes.


Sero-prevalence of hepatitis-E virus in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in and around Kolkata, W.B., India

A. Biswas, S.N. Mishra and A.K. Mishra



Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in many developing countries and becoming a major public health  concern that is transmitted through the faeco-oral route. HEV can cross species barriers and infect rhesus macaques and chimpanzees, the most relevant surrogates for human infections. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in rhesus monkey both in free range and in captivity by indirect ELISA and confirmation by western blot. In the present study, serum samples were collected from 100 different individuals of rhesus monkeys both from free range and captive population. The sero-prevalence of hepatitis E virus in rhesus monkeys in and around Kolkata was found to be 47% in captive individuals whereas 23% in free range species. Liver function test of the anti-HEV IgG positive rhesus monkey samples show normal liver condition. Increasing trend of hepatitis E sero-positivity with the increase in age in both captive and free range signifies improper hygiene and sanitation.

Key words: Hepatitis E virus, Kolkata, rhesus monkey, sero-prevalence


Effect of normal saline diluted Wova-FH on spawning performance and larval rearing of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita)

S.S. Das, D. Choudhury, S. Nanda, N. Das, K. Murmu, S.N. Sethi and A.P. Nayak.



The age range of brood fishes of 2 to 3 years, 1000 to 2000 g weight, and farm-raised Labeo rohita brooders were chosen, and stocked at 1500–2000 kg ha-1. Before stocking, the pond was treated with lime (200 kg ha-1) to balance the pH of the water, bleaching powder (200–300 kg ha-1) for eradication of predatory and weed fishes and cow dung as fertilizer (10,000 kg ha-1 year-1). The pond was fertilised with @1000 kg ha-1 of raw cow dung, 25 kg ha-1 of urea, and 25 kg ha-1 of single super phosphate. A semi-balanced feed composed of fish meal (10%), ground nut oil cake (35%), soybean oil cake (20%), wheat flour (10%), rice bran (24.8%), and vitamin mineral mixture (0.2%) were given to the brooders @3% body weight. Growth of brooders and water quality of the ponds were monitored at monthly intervals. Induced breeding trials, Wova-FH was diluted with normal saline to a level of 25%. Induced breeding of carps with comparable effectiveness and efficiency to generic Wova-FH were carried out. Economic analysis of spawn production indicated no significant difference in CB ratio between T0
and T1, whereas other two treatments showed significantly reduced CB value. Therefore, Wova-FH diluted with normal saline at a rate of 25% could be used to induce the L. rohita with a profit comparable to that of the control fishes. This could cut down on the farmers’ expenses while ensuring a bigger production level at a reasonable price.

Key words: Feeding, induced breeding, pond fertilization, spawning performance.

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