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Review on navgraha vatika: An ecofriendly pathway to landscape gardening

R. Kumari and S.P. Lal


The word “navgraha” refers to the nine celestial bodies or planets of our solar system and “vatika” represents the garden and greenery. So, the “navgraha vatika” symbolizes the gardening techniques, done by planting nine special plants (which represent the nine planets), in appropriate directions. The navgraha vatika is closely related to rashi or nakshatra vatika established close to sacred places i.e., astrologically planned gardens. The history of gardening in Ancient India shows that it follows a formal garden pattern having sacred geometry. So, by taking that in consideration, navgraha vatika follows formalism having geometrical and symmetrical patterns. According to Indian Astrology, the presence of planets (grahas) maintains the overall balance of energy in the universe/cosmos. This is also a reason to establish navgraha vatika in order to bring the entire universe on the earth. It would be noteworthy to mention that more oxygen is being released by navgraha plant species as compared to any other plant species. The twigs as well as branches of the nine planetary plants are used in yagnas or holy rituals. In this review paper, the importance of navagraha on both humans and the environment has been discussed. Brief description about all the nine planets and plants associated with them, along with a layout, has also been thoroughly discussed.

Key words: Indian custom and traditions, landscape gardening, navgraha vatika, rashi vatika

Contribution of Orissa to origin and nomenclature of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa): A review

P.K. Panda and R.K. Samantarai


Rice is the highest producing grain crop in the world having wider adaptations not only to diverse agroecosystems, but also to various thermal regimes making it suitable to be grown in three different seasons i.e. Kharif (Rainy), Rabi (Winter) and Zaid (Summer). Hence, it is important to know the origin of this wonder crop. Many workers have made their efforts to identify the center of origin of this crop with credible information. Based on the findings of various workers, it can be concluded that the center of origin of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is Orissa or Odisha and the genus Oryza has been derived from the word Orissa or Orysa or Oryza.


Key words: Centre of origin, cultivated rice, nomenclature, Odisha, Orissa, Oryza sativa


Phytohormone regulation on apple fruit maturation

H. Hamayoun, M.M. Modasar and F.M. Mohammadi


Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), one of the largest fruit crops in terms of cultivated area and yield. The fruit is generally marketed after storage, which is of great significance for regulating the market supply in the off-season. Apple-fruit ripening culminates in desirable changes in structural and textural properties are governed by a complex regulatory network. Much is known about ethylene as one of the most important factors promoting apple-fruit ripening. However, the dynamic interplay between phytohormones also plays an important part in apple-fruit ripening. Here, the complex regulatory network concerning the action of
phytohormones during apple-fruit ripening has been evaluated and reviewed. Future research prospects have also been discussed.


Key words: Apple, fruit ripening, phytohormone, regulation


Gamma rays and maleic hydrazide induced cytogenetic effects and pollen sterility in greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

T.R. Das and B. Baisakh


Cytogenetic studies for induced chromosomal variations and effects are considered as an accurate index in mutation breeding for determination of the potency of different doses of gamma rays and maleic hydrazide (MH) and deducing an optimum dose. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to estimate the
relative frequency and spectrum of meiotic chromosomal abnormalities at various stages of cell division using Gamma rays, Maleic hydrazide, and their combination treatments in the M1 generation of greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) varieties Sujata and OBGG-52. The analysis revealed a wide range of induced meiotic chromosomal abnormalities like univalents, multivalents, chromosome stickiness, laggards, bridges, and micronuclei by different mutagen doses. In general, the meiotic chromosomal abnormalities increased along with the increase in concentration of mutagens in both varieties. However, the induction of meiotic aberrations was higher in MH treatments, suggesting that MH could be more effective in inducing additional variability than gamma rays in greengram. It was observed that the combined treatments induced meiotic abnormalities at a higher frequency as compared to individual treatments of gamma rays and MH. The comparative study of induced chromosomal abnormalities in different varieties suggested that the variety Sujata expressed higher mutagenic sensitivity than the var. OBGG-52 towards the single mutagenic treatments used whereas in combined treatment of moderate doses, OBGG-52 expressed higher mutagenic sensitivity than Sujata. The pollen sterility observed in mutagenic treatments may be due to the induced mutations in chromosomes. A positive and significant correlation between the induced chromosomal abnormality and the pollen sterility was observed in both varieties.


Key words: Chromosomes, gamma rays, induced mutation, maleic hydrazide, pollen sterility


Conserving crop wild relatives of NorthEast India for sustainable agriculture

Gargi Sharma


Crop wild relatives (CWRs) offer valuable genetic resources for breeding better crop varieties, making agriculture more sustainable and resilient to meet global challenges like climate change. India occupies a significant position in the global conservation landscape due to its exceptional biodiversity. The Northeast region, located within the Indo-Burma Hotspot, contributes significantly to this diversity. CWRs in this region hold untapped potential for improving crop diversity, yet there remains a huge number of CWRs that are poorly documented and conserved. Consequently, the identification, documentation, and conservation of these wild resources are vital for agriculture. The Northeast region’s tribal communities, constituting around 12% of India’s tribal population, possess traditional knowledge about plant utilization and conservation. Their involvement is pivotal in preserving CWRs and their habitats. Effective CWR conservation calls for collaboration among research institutions, non-governmental organizations and local communities to preserve the genetic diversity inherent in Northeast India. Notable CWRs in Northeast India include wild rice, citrus relatives, wild bananas, brassicas, legumes, turmeric-ginger species and many more. The conservation of CWRs is not only crucial for biodiversity preservation but also for the future of agriculture. Raising awareness among the public, policymakers and agricultural communities is essential to ensure the conservation and utilization of CWRs.


Key words: Conservation, crop wild relatives, North-East India, traditional knowledge


Identification of physiological traits governing drought tolerance through principal component analysis in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek] germplasm accessions

M.S.P. Kanavi, G. Geetha, G. Somu and N. Nagesha


An experiment was conducted to identify most important physiological trait governing drought tolerance in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] through principal component analysis (PCA). Two hundred germplasm accessions along with five check entries were evaluated in an augmented design during summer 2015 by imposing drought stress condition. Observations were recorded on six physiological traits viz; harvest index, spad chlorophyll meter reading, leaf water potential,proline content, relative water content and specific leaf area. Mean squares of attributes to ‘genotypes vs check entries’ were significant for all the physiological traits except relative water content. Principal component analysis was carried out for 6variables showing positive correlation with yield to identify most important physiological trait governing drought tolerance.The first two factors explained 88.03 % of the total variability controlled by physiological traits. Highest factor loadings / component coefficients were recorded by proline content (0.98) followed by spad chlorophyll meter reading, leaf water potential (0.92), relative water content (0.87), harvest index (0.78) and specific leaf area (0.72).Among the six variables studied, proline content (21.03) had highest per cent contribution to the total variability followed by leaf water potential (18.63), spad chlorophyll meter reading (18.61), relative water content (16.82), harvest index (13.30) and specific leaf area (11.58). Thus, the study identified proline content as the most important physiological trait governing drought tolerance in green gram


Key words: Drought tolerance, greengram, PCA, physiological trait, proline


Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.: A new distributional record of wild sweet basil from Odisha

R.C. Misra, A.P. Raina, P.K. Singh and G.P. Singh


The genus Ocimum Linn. (Lamiaceae), commonly called as basil, is highly valued for its medicinal properties in indigenous as well as modern pharmacological system. It is also used in perfumes, cosmetics and food industries and associated with diverse Indian cultural traditions. The members are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America. During the investigation for germplasm collection in parts of Odisha, the natural occurrence of Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum, a wild sweet basil, was explored first time from undomesticated habitats of the state. On elucidative review, its natural occurrence in Odisha is found to be a new taxonomic record for the flora of Central and Eastern India. The present communication deals with information on its taxonomic description, phenology, germplasm collection and photographs to facilitate easy identification and rational use.


Key words: Eastern and central India, new record, Odisha, sweet basil


Identification key and check list of taxa of family Asteraceae of Jharkhand, India

A. Kumar, S. Sachan, P.P. Ghoshal and A.K. Bharati


A checklist of flora of Asteraceae of Jharkhand state was prepared with the help of relevant literature and voucher specimens found in Central National Herbarium, Howrah, Herbarium of Ranchi University, Ranchi and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. All the genera, species and varieties were enumerated with identification keys. The generic distributions at the global, national and state level and species on district-wise have been provided. The valid names of the species along with author citation(s), flowering and fruiting time and occurrence at district level were provided. Our study revealed that the family Asteraceae in Jharkhand is represented by 123 species and 05 varieties under 62 genera. The purpose of compilation of the checklist is to document the diversity and distribution of the members of family Asteraceae in Jharkhand state and the taxonomic key is to help students and botanist for ease of identification.

Key words: Asteraceae, checklist, flora, Jharkhand


Orchid diversity of Jamtara Forest Division, Jamtara, Jharkhand, India

S. Mishra, B.A. Devidas and S. Kumar


The present survey was conducted in the year 2023 to study the orchid diversity in Jamtara Forest Division, Jamtara, Jharkhand, India. The study was made during the flowering period of orchid species for proper identification. The survey outcome revealed a total of 19 species belonging to 11 genera, out of which four species are terrestrial and 15 species are epiphytes.


Key words: Jamtara, Jharkhand, orchidaceae, orchid diversity


Occurrence and activity pattern of leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha, India

N.C. Palei, B.P. Rath and J.D. Pati


The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) is a medium-sized cat endemic to South and Southeast Asia. It is an IUCN Red list of ‘Least Concern’ species because of habitat loss and poaching. The presence and activity pattern of leopard cats in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha, India is reported through camera trap surveys from 10th July 2021 to 30th June 2022 in five blocks. From a total of 13350 camera-trapping nights at 160 sampling sites, 73 independent detections of leopard cats at 22 sites in the sanctuary were detected. Leopard cats were nocturnal, with peak activity at 03.00 AM to 06.00 AM and 07.00 PM to 09.00 PM. Present study suggests that it is the need of the hour to conserve the leopard cats in the identified potential habitats including its major prey species. Further, extensive research and monitoring are required for these cats in the protected areas of the state of Odisha


Key words: Activity pattern, Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, camera trapping, leopard cat


Modified technique for surgical implantation of transmitter device for radio telemetry in levantine vipers (Macrovipera lebetinus) in Kashmir region, India

A.A. Sha, I. Selvaraj, Swaminathan, A. Mir, S. Mir and A.S. Virk


India harbours 23 species of viper among which Levantine viper (Macrovipera lebetinus) inhabits the regions of Jammu and Kashmir. In and around the vicinity of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, humansnake conflict has been observed majorly involving M. lebetinus. With the capability of hemotoxic venom, the envenomation adversely impacts the victim’s cardiovascular system. Wildlife SOS team frequently receives calls from locals to rescue Levantine vipers. With requisite equipment and protective gear, the rescuers are deputed to rescue these snakes and to release them back into safer habitat as a part of human-snake conflict mitigation. In order to understand the habitat ecology, and activity pattern of the species in the released natural habitat telemetry study was planned. The authors successfully accomplished the implantation of SI-2 transmitter device in M. lebetinus for radio telemetry studies. After a post operative observation of 14 days, the vipers were released back into suitable natural habitat. The detailed surgical interventions and anaesthetic procedures are discussed in this article


Key words: Conflict mitigation, human-snake conflict, levantine viper, radio telemetry, surgical implantation


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